A large part of the processes that take place within your body are linked to the circulatory system, thanks to an exceedingly complex structure. A network of arteries and veins nourish the 100 trillion or so cells in your body, visiting every one individually. In this chapter, we shall be closely considering this complex system composed of the heart, veins, blood and a great many more components.


Many needs in all living things—such as carrying nourishment and gasses like oxygen to the cells, and eliminating waste products from the body—are met by substances carried by the circulatory system. In human beings, the liquid that performs all these functions is the blood. Every single cell in your body, from a skin cell on your fingertip to the specialized retinal cells in your eyes, depends on what blood provides.

Blood flows through the arteries and veins that interpenetrate the body like a transport network or river delta, visiting every single corner of the body. During its travels through the arteries, that river carries numerous substances that the cells require. We can think of these as cargo packages carried by the river, containing food, water and various chemical substances. The most urgent package to be delivered is oxygen, because if deprived of oxygen, cells will soon die. Thanks to the specially constructed system in your body, however, the packages are delivered to every cell in time and to the correct “addresses.”

You seldom feel the flowing of this river during the course of your day-to-day life. However, the human body has been created with such a consummate artistry that though everywhere is interpenetrated by blood vessels, they are invisible from the outside. That is because the 2-mm (0.07-inch) layer of skin that covers your body conceals the capillaries in a masterly fashion.1

That epidermal layer is actually so thin that the slightest scratch will cause some blood to leak through it. Were the vessels not covered by a very fine and attractive skin, there is no doubt that even the most attractive people in the world would appear hideously repellent.

Blood performs a great number of vital functions inside the body, such as carrying waste and toxic substances to the liver, supporting the immune system, regulating body temperature rather like an air-conditioning unit, and carrying nutriments to the relevant regions. Communication via hormones within the body is also performed almost entirely by the blood.

Blood’s Vital and Inimitable Features

1. Responsibility for Transportation

Substances of all kinds that the body requires are carried to the relevant organs by the blood. Nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and minerals—and most importantly, oxygen—are just a few of these. In addition, the blood works like a waste disposal system, collecting unwanted substances from every cell. And each of the 100 trillion or so cells in the body produces waste products as a result of its daily functions. These waste products, including such potentially toxic compounds as carbon dioxide and urea, are removed from the cells by means of the bloodstream. The blood carries the non-gaseous wastes to the kidneys, where they are distilled. The carbon dioxide produced in the cells is carried to the lungs, from where it is expelled from the body.

means of the bloodstream. The blood carries the non-gaseous wastes to the kidneys, where they are distilled. The carbon dioxide produced in the cells is carried to the lungs, from where it is expelled from the body.

Blood cells moving in veins

It is unconscious blood cells that do all this. However, these cells can, in a very conscious manner, distinguish between waste and useful substances carried in the blood, and know which are to be deposited where. For example, they never carry toxic gasses to the kidneys, nor metabolic by-products to the lungs. Neither do they send waste products to any organ in need of nutrients— an error that would lead to the death of the entire body. The blood cells perform their functions with no confusion, error, misunderstanding or deficiency, in a most conscious manner, indicating the existence of a Mind and Consciousness that controls, regulates and organizes them. That cannot be the human being in question, because people live their entire lives quite unaware of these processes. Yet the circulation system continues to function, and flawlessly. To claim that the blood cells acquired their ability to distinguish, select and decide by chance, and that they do these things of their own will, would be totally illogical and irrational. It is Allah, the Almighty, Who gave the blood these features and created this flawless system.


A most illogical belief, Darwinism claims that millions of random events gave life to inanimate substances and gave rise to perfect structures that function quite flawlessly. The following example will be enough to see how nonsensical Darwinism truly is.

Albumin, one of the carrying proteins in the blood, attaches to itself fats such as cholesterol, hormones, toxic bile and drugs such as penicillin. Moving through the bloodstream, it then deposits the toxins it has collected in the liver in order to be neutralized, and carries nutrients and hormones wherever these are required.
Now ask yourself a few questions:

How can a molecule such as albumin, made up of atoms, with no intelligence or consciousness, distinguish between fats and toxins, drugs and nutrients? Moreover, how is it able to recognize the liver, bile duct and stomach, never confusing one for the other, and can always deposit the substances it carries in exactly the right place and precisely the right proportions?

If you are shown the waste products, drugs and nutrients carried in the blood, you will be unable to distinguish one from the other unless you have had medical training.

Even then, you will definitely be unable to determine how much of each one should be deposited at each organ.

The albumin molecule, a compound consisting of a few non-sentient atoms, knows things that the great majority of people cannot unless they have received medical training. And albumin has been performing its functions in all human beings flawlessly, for millions of years. No doubt, the way that a collection of atoms can exhibit such purposeful consciousness comes about through Allah’s infinite might and knowledge.


An immune-system cell patrolling the blood vessels

2. Troop Carrying

Another of the blood’s duties is to carry the cells of the immune system that fight disease. Any foreign bodies like viruses and bacteria that enter the body are neutralized by the antibodies and leucocytes in the blood. In addition, immune system cells patrol the bloodstream and so monitor the entire body. (For more details, see The Miracle of the Immune System by Harun Yahya.)

3. Communications

The blood also constitutes one of the body’s main avenues of communication. There is a magnificent communications system among the cells in the human body. They exchange information with one another, just as if each one were truly conscious. The cells send to one another chemical messages in the form of hormones, carried by the blood. (For details, see the chapter on “Splendid Communication within the Body: The Hormonal System.”)

4. Wound Healing

One of the blood’s most miraculous features is its clotting mechanism. Thanks to this clotting, or coagulation, blood loss from a damaged vessel is reduced to the minimum possible. During the
clotting process, dozens of proteins, enzymes and vitamins serve in regimented order. Because of this feature, scientists have shown the clotting mechanism as an example of flawless planning. (For details, see pp. 41-47)

5. The Regulation of Balances Within the Body

One of the vital cargo packages carried by the blood is heat. Arteries filled with blood spread heat through the body, just like the piping that carries hot water throughout a building. But unlike the pipes in a building, the body’s heat source is not a single boiler, but all the many cells in the body. Thanks to the blood, heat produced by each cell is distributed equally to all the others.

  1. Blood vessels contract, sweat glands are inactive, the hair stands on end, shivering begins.
  2. Blood vessels contract, sweat glands are inactive, the hair stands on end, shivering begins.
  3. Normal body temperature of 37 degrees Cetigrade
  4. Body temperature rises.
  5. The receptor and regulatory center in the hypothalamus
  6. Body temperature falls.
  7. Normal body temperature of 37 degrees Centigrade

Various changes take place in your body depending on the pace of the actions you perform. When body temperature rises, for instance, the regulator in the brain (the hypothalamus) arranges for blood vessels to expand and for your sweat glands to go into operation (1). The body’s temperature immediately goes down. When the body loses heat, the same regulatory center acts in reverse, ensuring that blood vessels contract and that shivering takes place. (2) As a result of these measures, body temperature then rises.

Were there no heat distribution system in your body, you would experience grave problems. As the result of any muscular activity you perform—running for instance, or carrying a heavy load—your legs or arms would overheat, and other regions of your body would remain close to room temperature—an imbalance that would inflict serious damage on your metabolism. For that reason, the equal distribution of heat is of the greatest importance.

In the same way, the blood again goes into action along with the sweat glands in order to reduce excessive heat. Blood vessels under the skin dilate, making it easier for heat carried in the blood to be released to the air. When we engage in strenuous physical activity, therefore, your face grows flushed because of blood vessel dilation. Blood also plays an important role in keeping your body temperature from cooling off. When you feel cold, your skin turns paler, because blood vessels under the skin contract according to the chill in the air. The quantity of blood in those regions close to the air is therefore reduced, and heat loss from within the body is reduced to a minimum.

A Tissue Consisting of Floating Cells

Structurally, the blood is very different to the other fluids in the body. In one sense, blood is actually a tissue, just like bone or muscle. However, while the cells that comprise these other tissues are bound tightly together, cells composing the blood are not attached to one another. Individual blood cells—known as erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes—move freely distributed within the blood plasma.
Blood consists of 55% plasma and 45% blood cells. Water comprises from 90 to 92% of the plasma, the rest consisting of plasma proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, hormones, urea, uric acid, lactic acid, enzymes, alcohol, antibodies, and elements such as sodium, potassium, iodine, iron and bicarbonate. The blood cells float in this complex fluid.

The Components of Blood

Erythrocytes: Small Red Cells

  1. Plasma
  2. Red blood cells
  3. Various white blood cells

When blood is examined under the microscope, many different kinds of cells can be seen (left). The large numbers of red blood cells give the blood its distinctive color. The blood assumes its bright red color when the red blood cells are loaded with oxygen. Otherwise, blood has a pinkish brown appearance.

The 25 trillion or so small red cells in the human body never cease carrying their loads. These cells, known as erythrocytes, travel all through the body inside the veins and arteries, carrying oxygen or carbon dioxide. However, these cells need a special structure in order to be able to carry a substance. For example, for a cell to carry oxygen, the most ideal shape for it is to be flat. This increases the cell’s surface area and facilitates contact with the oxygen molecules.

Indeed, the shape of the erythrocyte is reminiscent of a round, flat cushion, whose shape permits the greatest possible surface contact with the oxygen atom.

Under normal circumstances, some 2.5 million erythrocytes are produced in the body every second.2 It’s vitally important that the number of erythrocytes be regulated. A rise in their number for whatever reason—a reduction in body temperature, for instance—can lead to serious problems. When there is an excessive drop in body temperature the number of erythrocytes remains the same, although the blood fluid decreases. The viscosity of the blood is reduced, as the number of erythrocytes increases in terms of units per volume. This can lead to congestion in the veins, obliging the heart to work harder. It’s therefore of vital importance for the number of erythrocytes to be regulated.

It is not enough for the body’s transportation system for red blood cells to be flat. Erythrocytes that carry oxygen would be pointless if they could not offer it to the cells in a usable manner. The cells of the body require molecules to bind oxygen to them—molecules that must combine with the oxygen in the ideal manner, in a three-dimensional form, and carry the oxygen safely.

However, they must not bind too tightly to the oxygen, and when they arrive at the cell to which they will release the oxygen, they must separate from it with no difficulty. In short, in order for the oxygen to be transported and used where necessary, a very special molecule with a most particular creation is needed. That molecule is hemoglobin, which gives the erythrocyte—and thus, the blood itself—its red color.

Since hemoglobin performs two entirely separate functions, it has been described as an extraordinary molecule.

As hemoglobin deposits carbon dioxide in the lungs, it takes up oxygen and moves from there to the muscles, which oxidize nutrients and produce carbon dioxide. When the hemoglobin reaches the muscles, it carries out a reverse procedure, depositing oxygen and taking up carbon dioxide—all in a seemingly conscious and disciplined manner.

  1. Capillaries in the lung
  2. Air sacs in the lung
  3. Capillaries in tissue
  4. Cells anywhere in the body

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Oxygen
  3. Leukocyte
  4. Plasma
  5. Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a molecule ideally created for carrying oxygen.

In 1996, scientists discovered that in addition to carrying oxygen, the hemoglobin molecules in the erythrocyte structure also carried another molecule of vital importance: nitrogen monoxide (NO). There is a very important reason why hemoglobin carries this gas. With the assistance of NO, hemoglobin monitors how much oxygen is to be provided to the tissues.3 Therefore, hemoglobin’s transportation of nitrogen monoxide is of the very greatest importance to human health.

The hemoglobin molecule knows what to do, when and how, and acts under the
inspiration of Allah.

The flawless molecular structure and functions of hemoglobin attracted the interest of scientists. In his book The Great Evolution Mystery, the evolutionist Gordon Rattray Taylor writes the following:

The formation of blood, for instance, is a saga in itself. ... [It contains] at least eighty components, many of them still insufficiently understood. A component of central importance, of course, is the haemoglobin which picks up oxygen in the lungs, while giving up carbon dioxide; and then having travelled to the muscles, gives up oxygen and accepts carbon dioxide, which the muscles produce as a result of burning fuel, much as a car produces carbon monoxide. It is a remarkable molecule indeed which at one moment has an affinity for oxygen and a few seconds later loses that affinity; that it simultaneously changes its preferences with respect to carbon dioxide makes it even more remarkable. There could be no more amazing example of adaptation to a task.4

As summarized by Taylor, the hemoglobin molecule is able to make decisions when and where required, just like a conscious entity. Hemoglobin does not only carry oxygen; when it passes by a muscle in urgent need of oxygen, it also immediately realizes that it must deliver that oxygen, and acts in the knowledge that it needs to collect the carbon dioxide being released, and heads directly for the lungs to deposit its new load. The hemoglobin never confuses oxygen and carbon dioxide, and always moves to the correct destination.
It is most thought-provoking that a molecule should behave in a way that requires thought, decision-making, selection and preference.

Thanks to the extraordinary consciousness exhibited by this molecule, human beings are easily able to survive. An average of 900 million erythrocytes are produced in the human body every hour, and each erythrocyte cell contains some 300 million hemoglobin molecules. These molecules possess the ability to perform all of these processes without the slightest confusion. Bearing in mind the number of hemoglobin molecules in the human body and the way that all of them, without exception, possess the same abilities, you can see even more clearly the importance of this subject.

It is obvious to every rational person that such selectivity could never come about by chance, and that random events could never provide these features to all the billions of hemoglobin molecules in the human body. It is Allah Who created the hemoglobin molecule and placed it, with all its characteristics, inside the human body.
That is Allah, your Lord. There is no deity but Him, the Creator of everything. So worship Him. He is responsible for everything. (Surat al-An‘am: 102)

The Hemoglobin-Based Distribution of Oxygen

Represents an Impossible Dilemma for Evolutionists

The blood’s inability to distribute oxygen and take up carbon dioxide without hemoglobin represents an impossible dilemma for evolutionists. That is because evolutionists maintain that blood and the other systems in the human body all developed gradually through a series of stages. In other words, according to this claim, there must have been a time when blood already existed, but when the hemoglobin molecule was not yet present in it. Yet from the point of view of the theory of evolution, this constitutes a major contradiction. Blood cannot perform its function in the absence of the hemoglobin molecule, and an organism will swiftly die if oxygen fails to reach its cells. That organism has no time to wait for the hemoglobin molecule to form. Hemoglobin needs to have formed at the same time as the blood. In other words, it is essential that the blood, together with all its properties and structures, should emerge in a single moment.

Evolutionist claims regarding gradual development collapse at this point, and it can be seen that blood was created by Allah in a single instant.

The Wisdom in the Erythrocyte’s Shape

Healthy red blood cells

As already stated, the erythrocyte cell is shaped like a flat, round cushion. That ideal shape increases the cell’s surface area and facilitates contact with oxygen. In the event that this shape is deformed, exceedingly serious diseases result. In sickle cell anemia, the erythrocytes contain an abnormal form of hemoglobin known as hemoglobin S. When deprived of oxygen, this hemoglobin breaks down into elongated crystals within the erythrocyte, which crystals lengthen the cell, giving it a sickle-like shape. Since the erythrocytes have assumed a crescent-like form, the passage of oxygen from the blood to the tissues is made more difficult. This leads to an oxygen deficiency and increased production of sickle-shaped red cells. The condition can reach fatal proportions within a few hours.5

Apart from such diseases, the shape of the erythrocyte is the same in everyone. Thanks to that shape, they can easily carry oxygen to wherever it’s needed. The fact that the erythrocytes are round and flat in everyone who has ever lived, or will live in future, can never be explained in terms of coincidences. Allah has perfect knowledge of all, and sets out and arranges everything down to the very finest detail. Great is the glory of Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

Normal red blood cells (erythrocytes) are able to pass through the veins easily (1). Red blood cells that have been deformed, assuming a sickle-like shape (2), lead to congestion in the veins



Scientists investigating the phenomena taking place in the blood are still trying to replicate the flawless system in it. Yet to date, they have registered no concrete success. Indeed, researchers have begun abandoning their endeavors to imitate this extraordinary fluid, have altered the direction of their studies of blood, and are now trying to produce a different liquid capable of carrying oxygen.

However, scientists encounter various difficulties in their researches. Blood clots as soon as they withdraw it from the veins and expose it to the air. Also, blood cells do not behave in the same way under the microscope as they do in the body. And since blood does not remain alive either in plastic tubes or glass bottles, the cells must be taken out and examined one by one. Bearing all this in mind, science has been analyzing not blood in living things but blood in the laboratory. (R. von Bredow, Geo, November 1997)

This extraordinary substance, the likes of which cannot be produced in the laboratory, has been produced in the body since the appearance of the first human being. To claim that a substance that cannot be replicated with today’s most advanced technology could have arisen by chance events represents a total departure from reality. This substance, that gives life to so many organisms, is one of the manifest proofs of Allah’s creation.

Erythrocytes’ Ability to Change Shape

Erythrocytes are so small that a single drop of blood can contain 250 million of them. This gives them an advantage in being able to move with ease in the veins. However, the human body contains blood vessels with a diameter even smaller than the erythrocytes’. At first glance, this might seem to represent a problem, because the erythrocyte must squeeze through blood vessels that are even narrower than itself. How does this difficult process take place?

At this point, the erythrocytes’ flexible structure goes into operation. Thanks to their flat, exceedingly flexible structure, they are able to travel through even the narrowest blood vessels. This flexibility is another example of these cells’ creation. If erythrocytes lose just a little of that flexibility, serious consequences arise. In some diabetes patients, for example, sensitive tissues in the eyes become congested by erythrocytes that have lost their flexibility, which can lead to blindness in extreme cases.6 As just one example shows, every part of the human body is created with an exceedingly sensitive, flawless equilibrium.

The Economy Provided by the Body’s Recycling System

The recycling system in the human body has a flawless structure. In your body, a great many processes are carried out every single moment. Harmful wastes, dead cells, and foreign bodies that enter the body are destroyed by the immune system. A great many other unnecessary substances are constantly moving about, yet none of these inflict any harm, because there are systems in the body to expel these substances or to reuse them in the processes within the body.

  1. Iron deficiency is usually observed in the liver.
  2. Provision of iron from foodstuffs.
  3. Iron passing to the blood from the spleen.
  4. Spleen
  5. Old erythrocyte cells going to the spleen.
  6. Red bone marrow
  7. Formation of new erythrocytes.
  8. Iron passing to red bone marrow.
  9. Loss of iron (through urine, sweat, etc.
  10. Tissue cells

The illustration above shows how iron absorption occurs in the body. The constantly renewed red blood cells are an important source of iron.

Take constantly renewed erythrocyte cells, for example. These cells’ lifespan is approximately 120 to 130 days. Old cells die in the liver, the spleen and the bone marrow, and new erythrocytes are constantly produced to replace them. Ten million erythrocytes die every second, and 200 billion new ones are produced every day to replace those, so that all the erythrocytes in the human body are replaced every four months or so.7 The iron molecule inside dying erythrocytes is stored with the recycling system for use in the production of new ones. This is an example of magnificent industrial planning.8 Clearly, such planning could not have come about by itself. It is Allah Who created the erythrocyte together with these features.

Leucocytes: Micro-Trooper

With their life spans and other features they possess for the body’s defense, leukocytes are clear evidence of creation. Various images of leukocutes can be seen in the pictures to the side. The yellow cells are lymphocytes, the small ones leokocytes.

In a single drop of blood, there are some 400,000 miniature soldiers known as leucocytes. Under normal conditions, the number of leucocytes in a cubic inch of blood is between 7 and 10 million, although if a powerful defense is required, this figure can suddenly leap to as high as 30,000.9 The duty of these troops is to defend the body from micro-enemies. The leucocytes are programmed to destroy everything, living or inanimate that does not belong in the body. They therefore seek out, locate, follow and, at the right moment, destroy bacteria, viruses and harmful substances of all kinds that enter the body.

In structural terms, leucocytes are different from the other cells in the blood. For example, erythrocytes have no nucleus, but leucocytes do possess a nucleus as well as all the organelles. But leucocytes live for only a few days, or in the event of an infection, only a few hours. Contrary to what you might assume, such a brief life span is very important from the point of view of protecting the body. Because leucocytes engaged in defense, that is the worn-out ones die. But at that very moment, new healthy ones with a far greater defensive capacity are produced.10 In fact, leucocytes do not consist of only one type of cell, but rather of different kinds of troops, and “leucocyte” is a general term for cells that fight on the body’s behalf.

These are classified under two main groups. The first consists of granulocytes that initially encounter and combat the enemy. The second group is made up of lymphocytes that produce special weapons to wield against the enemy, in the form of antibodies.

Lymphocytes have different properties from those of the other cells in the blood. A much larger number of lymphocytes live in tissues than in the blood. These cells in the tissues, in the body’s depths, construct the equivalent of military bases and defend the tissues from germs. That being so, therefore, what is the reason for the presence of lymphocytes in the blood?

In fact, lymphocytes use the bloodstream as their transportation system. Just like a police patrol, they travel around the body by means of the blood and quickly reinforce tissues containing old and weak leucocytes. It is impossible for such a rational, rapid system to have come about by chance, as evolutionists would have us believe. Clearly, cells consisting of unconscious atoms could not have acquired their selective ability and responsiveness, or the features that allow them to protect the body, all by themselves. The way that this minute entity fights to protect other cells is therefore a very important clue. The way that a cell too small for you to see with your naked eye sacrifices itself on your behalf, and the fact that in your body there are billions of cells possessed of just the same self-sacrificing properties, are just some of the millions of miracles before your eyes.

The perfection in the structure of the leucocytes, their self-sacrifice, martial knowledge and abilities are not the result of their own preferences, but of their creation by Allah. So far, those who seek to prove otherwise have been unable to do so, nor will they have any more success in the future. In Surat an-Nur, Allah has compared those who deny Him to mirage:

But the actions of those who disbelieve are like a mirage in the desert. A thirsty man thinks it is water but when he reaches it, he finds it to be nothing at all, but he finds Allah there. He will pay him his account in full. Allah is swift at reckoning. (Surat an-Nur:39)

Evolutionists’ Distorted Logic on This Subject

A huge number of germs enter the human body every day. The immune system seeks to neutralize them in the first stage. However, some germs and foreign bodies manage to enter the circulatory system and represent a threat to life. Such bodies are known as antigens. The body seeks to destroy antigens, or to prevent them multiplying, by producing the substances known as antibodies. Antibodies neutralize antigens by locking onto their three-dimensional structure, just like keys fitting a lock. To help understand this system, lock-and-key analogy between antibodies and antigens requires careful consideration.

Immune cells are capable of producing antibodies for each of the hundreds of thousands of different antigens that occur in nature. That enables the body’s cells to instantly produce keys adapted to these hundreds of thousands of locks.

B cells, a component of the immune system, contribute to the defense of the body by producing the antibodies that fight specific invaders.

But what’s really interesting is that the human body can produce antibodies even against artificial antigens manufactured in the laboratory. In the same way that the cells can produce suitable keys for locks in nature, they can also produce keys for locks that do not exist in nature.

How can a mechanism within the body possess such astonishing information about the outside world? Of course, that cannot be explained in terms of random coincidences. How does a cell come to acquire knowledge of hundreds of thousands of foreign bodies, even of a very different antigen produced in the laboratory? Even if you accept that defensive cells in some way recognize antigens in the body, it’s still quite astonishing that they can recognize one they’ve never encountered before. Moreover, in the same way that the defensive cells immediately identify this foreign substance entering the body, they also possess the ability necessary to immediately identify and produce the weapons (or antibodies) effective against it. To say that these cells, equipped with abilities like identification, and taking appropriate measures that require intellect and consciousness, came into being by chance is illogical. In the same way that evolutionists cannot explain, in terms of their own theory, the way these cells identify all forms of foreign bodies, so they seek to gloss over the issue with exceedingly illogical, unscientific explanations.

Ali Demirsoy, a Turkish evolutionist and scientist, says the following about the defense cells’ recognition of artificial antigens: “However, a cell that has previously developed a mechanism for producing antibodies against a chemical substance artificially synthesized in the 20th century is clairvoyant.”11

In the same book, Professor Demirsoy admits that there has so far been no explanation of this: “How and in what form do plasma cells acquire this knowledge, and how do they produce specially formed antibodies accordingly? No definitive explanation has so far been forthcoming.”12

In these words, Demirsoy is admitting that the cell possesses a number of extraordinary properties. That is because the word “clairvoyant” is used to describe someone who possesses certain information before the fact. Possession of knowledge by a cell—especially about entities far from its own environment—is something extraordinary. One cannot, of course, expect a cell that comes into being by means of a combination of inanimate atoms to possess powerful instincts or advanced knowledge by chance. Such a claim would exceed the bounds of reason and logic.

However, since evolutionists are in a hopeless state, they must accept the miraculous properties possessed by living things since their creation. Yet they try to account for the source of this perfection in other terms, in order to deny that these characteristics were specially created—in other words, to deny the existence of Allah. After passing that point, evolutionists offer explanations that have nothing whatsoever to do with science, merely engaging in propaganda that seeks to gloss over their despairing state. They attempt to hypnotize listeners by saying “This is a miracle of evolution” or “this cell is apparently clairvoyant,” as if they were an evolutionary talisman.

The fact is, however, that cells too small to be seen with the naked eye and constantly being renewed, possess the extraordinary ability and equipment to identify and destroy all enemies that threaten the human body before they have even seen them. To ascribe such a situation to chance underscores the intellectual weakness of those who aim to deny the existence of Allah.

Evolutionists suggest that mutations have given the cells such perfect functioning and characteristics. In his book Inheritance and Evolution, Demirsoy goes on to say that, “It is maintained that this mechanism [the antibody’s recognition of antigens] came about in the form of mutations that developed by chance.”

  1. Immune cells immediately identify foreign cells that enter the body. At the same time they identify and produce the most effective weapons--antibodies--for use against the enemy.
  2. Antibodies eliminate antigens by combining with them. In a very important way, the body’s cells create weapons tailored to the particular enemy.
  3. As can be seen, antibodies lock onto antigens with a three-dimensional structure, much as a key fits into a lock, to eliminate the antigens.

Detailed examination of the above quotation helps understand the stratagems that evolutionist scientists resort to. The author states that some circles maintain that this mechanism came into being as the result of mutations. A reader lacking a detailed knowledge of biology might well think that this sentence represented a scientific explanation and a proven truth. The fact is, however, that the claim that the antibody’s recognition of antigens came about by chance mutations is completely hollow, of no scientific value, and has been written with the sole aim of distracting and influencing the reader.

This method of deceiving people resembles hoodwinking by means of word games those ignorant of the outside world, or who has completely lost his memory. If such people are shown a skyscraper equipped with the most advanced technology and told that that building “formed as the result of an earthquake,” even if they believed that such a thing was logically impossible, they would have no means of disproving it. Nonetheless, someone who uses his reason and conscience will still appreciate that such an event could never have taken place.

To say that a complex cell came into existence through mutations is hardly different. First of all, any tiny cell possesses a technology far superior to that of any huge skyscraper. Indeed, many scientists say that the cell is the most superior and complex structure they have yet encountered. Secondly, the effect on the cell of mutation—which is claimed to have endowed the cell with its characteristics—is generally even more destructive than the effects of an earthquake on a skyscraper.

It is absolutely impossible for such a destructive factor to produce, by chance, a cell able to produce individual antibodies for hundreds of thousands of antigens, and displays a memory and intelligence far greater than those of human beings.

According to the theory of evolution, the cell acquired these features as the result of many consecutive mutations. That’s analogous to a city’s being erected as the result of many consecutive earthquakes!

Let us accept for a moment, albeit in defiance of scientific facts and no matter how impossible such a thing may be—that each mutation did give the cell some beneficial feature. Yet even that is not sufficient, because the immune cell could not have waited for millions of years to acquire all its characteristics. If the cell is unable to fulfill its function, that spells death for the organism in question. Defensive cells, together with all their properties, must therefore have been present in the living thing right from the very first moment.

In addition, immune cells do not just possess a very superior reproductive capacity. There are many classes of cells in the immune system, each with very different properties and functions. Bearing in mind the properties of such cells, and their varying abilities, it can once again be seen how the theory of evolution’s “chance” account collapses in the face of the facts.

Immune cells’ ability to estimate the physical structures of other living cells and their ability to produce tactics in accordance with this, right down to the finest detail, were created by Allah, the Almighty.

Your deity is Allah alone, there is no deity but Him. He encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Surah Ta Ha: 98)

Plasma: The Vital Component of Blood

The fluid in which the blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes) swim is known as plasma. This is no simple liquid, but a special compound containing a great many special substances. Plasma consists of 92% water, 6% to 8% protein, and quantities of dissolved salts, glucose, fat and amino acids, carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes and hormones.

Plasma distributes the nutrients you obtain from the food you eat throughout your body. It also carries waste products that cells produce to the relevant organs in order to expel them from the body. . . If plasma did not have this responsibility of transport and delivery, then the food you eat would serve no purpose, nutrients would not reach your tissues, and your body would swiftly become poisoned because the waste products it produces could not be expelled.

Among the plasma’s other tasks include:

Ensuring blood pressure is kept at a specific level,
Assisting in the equal distribution of heat in the body,
Maintaining the acidity of the blood and other tissues at a specific level.
Plasma proteins each have very different functions. They come in three main forms: albumin, fibrinogen and globulins.

Albumin is the most numerous plasma protein. It performs a sort of carrying service in the body. Albumin’s most important function is to prevent excessive liquid passing from the capillaries to the surrounding structures.13 In order to understand the importance of this, look at the path traced by nutrients in the body. In order for them to reach the requisite tissues from the arteries, nutrients must cross the tissue wall, which possesses very small pores.

Nevertheless, no substance can cross that wall by itself. What matters here is blood pressure. Just as in a sieve, the liquid plasma component of the blood and the smallest molecules cross the wall under pressure. If there were no such barrier and these substances were able to reach the tissues in excessive quantities, then edema would form in the tissues. Albumin absorbs the water just like a sponge, and due to its high density in the blood, it thus forestalls that danger.

Water and most dissolved substances are able to cross the capillary wall with ease. But this is not possible for proteins. For that reason, such proteins as albumin remain inside the vessel at the point of transition and prevent liquid from seeping out. Albumin binds to itself fats such as cholesterol, hormones and yellow bilirubin, a poisonous bile-duct product. In addition, it binds onto penicillin and some other drugs, refusing to let them to pass. It deposits toxins in the liver, and carries nutrients and hormones to the places in the body where they are needed.14

Plasma constitutes an important part of the blood. The proteins and salts in plasma perform vitally important functions.

Blood clotting, removal of toxins from the body, and the transportation of nutrients are just a few of the tasks that proteins perform. Plasma carries out the transportation-delivery function within the body, with never any confusion or error. These proteins exist in the plasma of all humans, performing exactly the same functions. It is of course Allah, the Lord of All, Who endows the proteins constituting the liquid plasma with their intelligence

Fibrinogen, another protein in plasma, plays an important role in blood clotting. Yet another protein in blood, the gamma globulins, transmit protective substances such as antibodies that form in response to the body’s being stimulated by a particular infection.

These are just a few of the proteins in the blood. In addition, gasses such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide are also present in dissolved form in plasma. Glucose, one of the solid substances in the blood, is also very important, being used as fuel for the brain and muscles. For that reason, its level in the blood is regulated by hormones. If the glucose falls below a specific level, trembling and fainting ensue, followed shortly afterwards by coma, and often death.

Each of these substances, of such exceeding importance to human life, is the product of a very special creation, as becomes clear when one considers their functions and characteristics.

As you have seen, there are close interrelations between the substances in the blood. The absence of just one of these substances of vital importance to all human beings, or its presence in the wrong amount or with different properties, leads to serious problems in the body. This shows that all the properties of blood were created together by Allah.

Blood Clotting

Every part of the body is equipped with a system consisting of millions of vessels, through which blood constantly flows. As the result of the small scratches or cuts that the body is occasionally subject to, the liquid flowing through these tubes leaks to the surface. Under normal conditions, one might expect all the blood in the body to flow through this hole, so that even the tiniest cut leads to the death of the individual. Yet that is not what happens. The blood begins to clot around the wound, and the coagulated blood then blocks the gap, just like hardened putty.This situation resembles a hole in the bottom of a bucket being repaired by being blocked up in order to prevent water leaking out of it.

Throbocytes traveling widely dispersed through the blood.
  1. Thrombocyte
  2. Red blood cell

This, there can be no doubt, is a great miracle. This property of blood saves the life of every human on Earth. Were it not for that coagulating ability, then even the tiniest scratch would end in death. However, people never think about this miracle that lies right before their very eyes and so preserves their lives.

Blood flowing in your capillaries immediately beneath the skin leaks out as the result of the slightest scratch or cut (top). Shortly afterward, blood around the cut begins to coagulate (middle picture). Fibrin with its soft structure begins to dry after stopping up the wound, and forms a hard shell to protect the wound until the healing process is complete (bottom).

So, how does this miracle come about? How does blood coagulate? As the answer to this question is pursued, a very clear miracle of creation emerges.

Coagulation is reminiscent of the first aid provided by ambulances called to the scene after an auto accident.
When bleeding takes place anywhere in the body, blood platelets known as thrombocytes hasten to the site.

Thrombocytes are distributed throughout the bloodstream, so wherever bleeding occurs there will inevitably be thrombocytes somewhere near. A substance known as the von Willebrand protein acts rather like the traffic police, indicating the site of the accident and requesting first aid. It halts the thrombocytes when it detects them and causes them to halt at the scene.

The first thrombocyte to arrive on the scene emits a special substance, just as if it were calling for back-up, and calls other teams to the site. A microscopically small cell realizes that there is a problem and is able to communicate with others, which understand the message being sent out and do what is requested of them. Tiny entities invisible to the naked eye thus communicate with one another and organize themselves.

At this point, some 20 enzymes in the body combine and together, begin producing a protein called thrombin over the wound. The absence of just one of these enzymes would mean that the system would not function, and death would be the result. However, everything has been planned, and the system has been constructed in a flawless manner.

Thrombin is produced only at the site of an open wound. This resembles the first-aid team providing the necessary medicine for the patient at the scene. In addition, that production of this protein must be in just the right quantity, and moreover, it must start and end at exactly the right time. The enzymes responsible for manufacturing the protein issue among themselves the commands to start and stop.

Once a sufficient quantity of this protein has been produced, tiny fibers known as fibrinogen form, serving a very important purpose: They form a web over the wound, to which arriving thrombocytes adhere and accumulate. As more and more thrombocytes accumulate, the bleeding slows. Afterward, once the wound is completely healed, the scab dissolves by means of similar processes.15

Consider that these enzymes and proteins consist of strings of inanimate, blind, unconscious atoms. Yet each one of these assumes a function right from the outset once an injury has occurred. They swiftly hasten to the scene, organize themselves to halt the bleeding, produce the requisite proteins as if filling an order, communicate with others to call for assistance, understand the messages received from one another, and fulfill their functions.

The system functions flawlessly, right down to the finest detail. Now, consider what would happen were there to be any flaw in this vital system: If blood began to coagulate in the absence of any wound, or if the scab that formed over the wound peeled away from it, or if the proteins that play a role in coagulation had trouble communicating—if any one of these occurred, then we would face clotting in the vessels leading to such vital organs as the heart, lungs or brain, and death would ensue due to loss of blood.

Your body does not need coagulation to take place only around visible wounds. We also need a clotting system to repair the breaks in capillaries, which happen very frequently but of which, of course, you are generally unaware. When you bang your knee against a table or chair, a large number of these capillary vessels rupture, leading to internal bleeding. But thanks to the clotting system, the bleeding immediately stops, to be followed by the healing process begins.

If no clotting occurred, the result would be the disorder known as hemophilia. Hemophiliacs need to be protected from even the slightest blow, because particularly in the advanced stages of the disease in even the smallest bleeding cannot be stopped, and that leads to the patient’s death from blood loss.

Left: Cells providing coagulation. Right: Fibrin threads imprisoning blood cells (during clotting).

It is essential that the clotting property in our blood exist, but it also needs to be subject to strict supervision. As you can clearly see from the information provided, such a system can definitely not form in the living body by chance. This system, whose every detail is the product of planning and calculation, is an indication of the Allah’s infinite knowledge, intellect and power. To maintain that this system came about by chance in fact expresses the logical collapse of Darwinism.

Is He Who creates like him who does not create? So will you not pay heed? (Surat an-Nahl:17)


Thrombin is a protein that coagulates the blood. However, although thrombin is present in the bloodstream it does not lead to clotting in the capillaries it moves through, thereby halting the normal flow of blood. So how does thrombin suddenly acquire its coagulating property in moments of need?

Thrombin is widely present in the bloodstream but in the form of the inactive protein prothrombin. Since prothrombin is still inactive, it cannot enable the formation of the substance fibrin which is necessary for the clotting process by putting the fibrinogen into action. Living things are thus protected from deadly uncontrolled clotting.

Consider that if only fibrinogen and prothrombin assumed duties in the blood clotting system, this could have deadly effects. In that case, when a person was injured, the prothrombin would roam aimlessly through the bloodstream, not affecting the fibrinogen, and the person concerned would die from loss of blood. Since prothrombin lacks the ability to turn fibrinogen into fibrin, there is a need for some mechanism to set prothrombin into action—and such a system actually does exist.

During the clotting process, another protein called Stuart factor affects the prothrombin, converting it into the active thrombin. Thrombin in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin, and blood clotting thus takes place.

However, if the Stuart factor, prothrombin and fibrinogen were the only proteins to play a role in coagulation, the Stuart factor would immediately start working and the organism’s blood would solidify. For that reason Stuart factor is not present in the blood in an active form, but needs to be activated in order to start working.

At this point, coagulation displays more striking properties. It is not enough for the active Stuart factor to set the prothrombin in motion. You can mix Stuart factor and prothrombin together in a test tube, but after it takes time thrombin to form, any individual will already have died of blood loss. Yet another protein, known as accelerin, is needed to set the Stuart factor in motion. When all of these come together, the accelerin and Stuart factor immediately act on the prothrombin, turning it into thrombin and halting the bleeding.

To summarize, two separate proteins are needed to activate one proenzyme.

Yet the processes involved in coagulation go still further. Initially, in fact, the accelerin is in the form of the inactive proaccelerin. So what activates the proaccelerin? Thrombin! As you will recall, however, thrombin is further along than proaccelerin in this chain reaction. This means that thrombin, which plays a role in the production of accelerin, is rather like a grandchild appearing before the birth of its own grandparent. Yet since the Stuart factor acts on the prothrombin at a very slow rate, there is always some thrombin in the bloodstream. (Michael Behe, Op cit., pp. 85-90.)

All this is a rather superficial account of the coagulation process. Yet from this brief description, you can still see how blood clotting, which we encounter frequently in our daily lives—is actually exceedingly complex, a marvel of creation. This system functions by means of dozens of components working together, and could not function properly in the absence of any one of them. To suggest that it came into being by chance is a most illogical and irrational claim.

Moreover, evolutionists claim that living things evolved in stages. But as you have seen, all proteins and enzymes in the clotting process depend on one another for clotting to occur. In the absence of any one, the others serve no purpose, and will even lead to the death of the body concerned. Therefore, the living organism will have no time to wait for all the components to be present, and will thus die. Whatever appearance it now displays, and whatever physical and chemical features it now possesses, it must have had them all since it first appeared. This is one of the proofs that Man was created by Allah in a single moment.

Say: “Have you thought about your partner deities, those you call upon besides Allah? Show me what they have created of the earth; or do they have a partnership in the heavens? Have We given them a Book whose Clear Signs they follow? No indeed! The wrongdoers promise each other nothing but delusion.” (Surah Fatir:40)


As you have seen from this account so far, blood is a miraculous solution that could not have come into being by chance, and is one of the manifest proofs of creation. Here it will be useful to recall that though blood is a miracle, its existence by itself is of little significance, because in order for it to provide any benefits to a living organism, it also needs a transport system. That is provided by the circulatory network in the human body.
Blood also needs to be propelled through the veins and arteries to reach every cell of the body. The engine that provides that service is, of course, the heart.

The Most Perfect Pump

The world’s most perfect pump is at this very moment right in your chest. With its unbelievable creation and incessant beating, the heart sends all your blood around your body some 1,000 times during the course of a single day.

The human heart is approximatey the size of a fist, and is a pump made of muscle. Considered in terms of capacity, however, it is the most powerful, longest lived and most productive machine in the world. First off, its strength is quite magnificent: The heart can squirt blood to a distance of up to 3 meters (10 feet), and in the space of one hour, can expend enough force to raise a medium-sized car three feet off the ground.16

An indefatigable pump in your body works nonstop, 24 hours a day. In order to meet the body’s needs, this pump works using its own electrical system, requiring it to produce enough energy in an hour to lift an average-size car about 1 meter (3.2 feet) off the ground. That extraordinary pump is your own heart.

However, the heart’s most important feature is being able to work without stopping, contracting some 70 times a minute, and 37 million times a year. It beats some 2.5 billion times during the average human lifespan and pumps approximately 300 million liters (or 80 million gallons) of blood.17 That is the equivalent of the amount of liquid it would take to fill 10,000 oil tankers. Even while you sleep, your heart pumps some 340 liters (90 gallons) of blood. To put it another way, your heart could fill a car’s gas tank 9 times over every hour. During physical activity—while running, for example—its work rate increases and it pumps some 2,273 liters (0.6 gallons) of blood.18

Every time it beats, the heart sends blood into the depths of the body with great force. To get a better idea of this muscle’s strength, see how often you can fully clench your fist at a rate of once every a second. You will soon become tired and be unable to continue. After a few minutes, the muscles that move your fingers and hand will begin to ache. Yet your heart continues to expand and contract for your entire lifetime, and never rests for even a minute.

To the side is seen the detailed structure of a pump that works according to a very complex system, the product of advanced technology. The human heart possesses a far more perfect and complex structure than this.

Another feature of the heart is how it pumps the required amount of blood according to prevailing conditions. Under normal circumstances—at rest—it beats some 70 times a minute. During exercise, however, the muscles need increased quantities of oxygen. The heart then increases the amount of blood it pumps, by beating up to 180 times a minute. It can increase the volume of blood it pumps by up to 5 times. A machine that works non-stop at that rate will soon break down, but the heart continues working this way for decades, never losing its rhythm.

Flawless Creation

To better understand the work performed by the heart, compare it to an artificial pump.

1. The external membrane of the heart. 2-7- The aorta, 3- Lung arteries, 4-9- The left atrium, 6- Arteries between the anterior heart ventricles, 8- Upper artieries, 11- The left ventricle, 12- The right coronary artery, 13-The right ventricle, 14- The coronary atrium node, 15- Atrium and ventricle node, 16- The epicardium.

But the heart is not a simple pump that sends one liquid from one site to another. Its very special creation allows it to pump two different liquids in two different directions. Unlike most normal pumps, it has more than one speed and by itself, regulates the speed at which it needs to work in the light of prevailing conditions. Bearing these features in mind, we can compare the heart to a specially created pump controlled by a highly advanced compsuter.

A pump consists of an engine that provides power and the mechanical parts that the engine causes to function. The heart, on the other hand, is both a motor and a pump.

Man-made pumps last no longer than 10 to 15 years. During that span of time, the pump does work constantly, but only at specific intervals. Pumps that work all the time wear out after very short periods. In either case, the pumps sometimes develop faults and need maintenance or to have parts replaced. In contrast, the heart works 24 hours a day for as much as 70 or 80 years, or even longer. A healthy heart never requires any maintenance during that entire time. Unlike man-made pumps, it never needs to be repaired nor to have parts replaced.

The heart starts beating while a human is still a fetus in the womb, and continues beating for a whole lifetime. The heart pumps blood at every moment of your life, without our being constantly aware of it and quite beyond your control. This pump was working while you were still a baby, and while you were at school, and continues working while you sleep. It is even working now, pumping blood even as you read these words.When the general structure of the heart is examined in greater detail, you can immediately see its exceptional creation.

The Heart’s Original Pumps

The heart is actually a combination consisting of two separate pumps. The one on the left pumps oxygenated blood to the organs and tissues in the body, while the one on the right pumps CO2-laden blood to the lungs.
Each pump also consist of two separate upper and lower pumps. The smaller is known as the atrium, and the larger as the ventricle. When clean blood reaches the left part of the heart, for example, it flows into the upper small atrium. From there, it is expelled in to the larger ventricle below. The ventricle, or large pump, then sends the blood to the organs. The same process is also performed by the pumps on the right side of the heart, in sending blood to the lungs.

The contraction of the atria and ventricles takes place in the exact opposite manner. In the working of the heart, details such as these are some of the proofs that this organ was created by a superior Intelligence.

By contracting and expanding, the heart causes blood to flow through the body. As a result of the contraction of the atria and the opening of the valves in them, blood passes to the ventricles, and—as the ventricles contrac—from there to the arteries. The blood in the right atrium, returning from the body, contains less oxygen. The left atrium is full of oxygenated blood from the lungs.

One-Way Safety Valves

Between these pumps are valves that open only in the direction of the flow of the blood. When the atria contract, these valves are opened and the blood fills the large ventricles. When the large ventricles contract, the valves between close and the blood is prevented from flowing back to the atria from whence it came.

1) The blood entering the ventricles pushes open the half-moon-shaped valvelets.
2) The continuing contraction sends the blood to the veins.

There are similar valves in the discharge part of the large pump. When the large pump contracts, these valves open, and the blood is allowed to flow out to the body. When the beat is finished, however, the valves close to prevent the pumped blood from flowing back to the heart. This is a simple but most reliable precaution, and modern artificial pumps use similar systems.

The existence of just one of these valves is proof that the heart has been specially, consciously created. Leaving aside the heart’s hundreds of miraculous features, and considering only how its valves came into existence reveals to us Allah’s flawless creation. No series of random events could ever create one of the valves in the chambers of the heart, let alone the flawless structure of the heart itself. Every detail of this perfect engine in the human body is proof of the might, power and existence of Allah.

They do not measure Allah with His true measure. Allah is All-Strong, Almighty. (Surat al-Hajj:74)
Oiling the Pump

A cross-section of the heart wall.

Consider the machines you are familiar with. Any machine, even a very simple mechanism, produces friction caused by the rubbing together of its components. Unless that friction is eliminated, the parts will soon wear out and the machine will be damaged enough to become inoperable. That means that its working parts need to be lubricated regularly.

The heart, which expands and contracts constantly for your whole lifetime, faces exactly the same risk. It needs a lubrication system in order to maintain its ceaseless functioning. On the outer layer of the heart lies a layer consisting of a two-layered membrane known as the pericardium. The space between these two membranes is filled with a special lubricating fluid— just one of the heart’s perfectly created details.

The Heart’s Armor

The body’s vitally important organs are protected in very different ways. The heart is one of the organs most in need of protection, since any blow to it could lead to lethal consequences. For that reason, your heart is located in the safest place—in your chest, inside the ribcage. The ribs protect the heart from blows from outside, just like the ribs of a ship’s hull.

  1. Lungs
  2. Heart

The location of the heart in the chest cavity.
A) The heart’s links to the breastbone and ribs.
B) Cross-section along the heart in the chest cavity.
C) Connections between large blood vessels in the lungs and the heart.

How Is the Heart Nourished?

  1. Aorta
  2. Left coronary artery
  3. Coronary vein
  4. Main branch of left coronary artery
  5. Coronary sinus
  6. Right coronary vein

The tissues of the heart muscle are too thick and tight for nutrients and oxygen to pass through them, and are therefore unable to benefit from the blood pumping through it. However, like all other organs, the heart’s cells need blood. In fact, since it is a constantly functioning muscle, the heart needs even more oxygen than any other organ.

This need has, once again, been resolved thanks to a most incomparable creation. The blood arriving from the lungs to the left part of the heart is the cleanest, most oxygen-rich in the body. Two specialized arteries, known as the coronary arteries, emerge from the aortic arteries by which the blood is pumped out to the body. These arteries do not lead to the body, as do all the other arteries, but return to the heart. In this way, the most oxygen-rich blood is thus forwarded directly to the heart, without going anywhere else first.

Another feature can be perceived in the way the coronary arteries are laid out. As these arteries head towards the heart they make intermediate connections with one another, which connections serve as insurance against any one of the arteries becoming blocked. If one of the arteries does suffer an occlusion, the blood courses on through the other artery, by-passes the blocked area and reaches the heart muscle. This same feature is employed by urban planners when laying out networks of water distribution. In order that the city should not be left without water in the event of a fault in one of the existing pipes, this age-old network system of the human heart is copied on a far wider scale.

Even these connections made between the arteries nourishing the heart exhibit such reason and planning as to leave chance as no explanation.
Before moving on to other structural features of the heart, it will be useful to issue a reminder. Just bearing in mind the features described so far, you can see that the heart’s features could never have formed one by one, as evolutionists would have us believe—and furthermore, that all these stages could never have come into existence by chance.

In all regards, the heart exhibits a flawless and complete creation. It is impossible for this organ, or even any one of its components, to have come into existence by itself. In addition, even if we were to assume that such a perfect organ did emerge by itself—no matter how impossible that might be—it would still serve no purpose. Whatever ideal properties a heart might possess, in the absence of a circulatory system and blood to pump, it would have no bodily function. Again according to evolutionist logic, an organ with no function is doomed to become “vestigial” and disappear. But as you have seen, just one single example reveals the major contradictions in evolutionists’ claims.

Your Heart’s Electrical System

If you extract a living heart from the body, it will continue working independently until it has consumed the last of its energy. If provided with the necessary oxygenated blood, the heart will still beat for hours, even if all its nerve connections are severed.

In order to examine this interesting situation, let us briefly review how the muscles work: For a muscle to contract, it first needs a command from the brain or the spinal cord. That command is in reality an electrical signal forwarded by means of the nervous system. Since the heart’s structure is composed entirely of muscle tissue, then a heart that beats some 70 times a minute needs to be electrically stimulated that many times.
Then how can a heart still continue to beat for a while even if all its nerve connections are severed and it is removed from the body? This leads us to ask where these commands to contract come from?

When scientists investigated this question, they encountered something most surprising. In the heart, there is a generator that produces its own electricity—a generator made of flesh, itself one of the components of the very heart it supplies.

An artificial generator goes into action in the event of a cut in the external electrical supply, and continues producing electrical current to prevent machinery from shutting down or being damaged. The heart, one of the most crucial organs in the body, is also similarly protected in order to ensure it is never harmed in the event of any interruption to its energy supply. For the heart to stop even for a moment could lead to grave damage to the brain and the rest of the body, and could even have fatal consequences. The electrical system operating the heart must therefore work without ceasing.

Scientists investigating this electrical system made even more astonishing findings. The heart functions not only with a micro-generator, but also thanks to an assembly of interconnected, programmed and systematic electronic circuits. This electrical management system works together with a number of elements, from the kidneys to the brain, and from the arteries to the hormonal glands.

Of course, this flawless creation in the heart, discovered only very recently by scientists, has been working non-stop for millions of years. Without exception, this system has been present in all the many billions of people who have ever lived, and in all those who will ever live in the future. This is Allah’s flawless creation.

The Heart’s Electronic System

When examined closely, the upper wall of the heart’s right atrium can be seen to contain this generator that supplies electricity to the heart. In an adult at rest, this generator, a knot of tissue known as the sinoatrial (SA) node, emits 72 low-frequency electrical impulses a minute.19 Each of these impulses causes the most perfect pump in the world to contract once.

To better witness the creation in this mechanism, let us now examine one heartbeat, which takes place in less than one second.

  1. Left atrium
  2. Atrium and ventricle fibers
  3. Division between heart ventricles
  4. Fibre branches
  5. Righ atrium
  6. Heart atrium node (S.A. node)
  7. Upper main veins

The energy wave that causes the heart to work is initiated by the S.A. node in the atrium and with the help of the coronary artery, passes to the A.V. node, and from there to the right and left fibers. A special electrical system in the heart allows these processes to take place. The force that permits a piece of tissue to produce electricity belongs to Allah, Who has no partners in His creation.

The energy wave emitted by the SA node spreads over the tissues that make up the heart’s small pumps (valves). Blood passes from the smaller atria to the large ventricles at the bottom of the heart.

Under normal conditions, however, one would expect the situation to be very different. The energy given off by the SA node, or generator will first stimulate the large pumps. Yet since the electrical wave moves very fast, both pumps will contract at almost the same moment and the heart’s working mechanism should be impaired. Yet such an electrical circuit must be constructed that the electrical energy must first stimulate the small atria, after which it must pause for an instant before stimulating the large ventricles. After the electrical signal has been emitted, it must pause until the small atria have performed their function. The necessary circuit needs to be a marvel of engineering.

In fact, after stimulating the atria, the electrical wave emitted by the generator moves to another tissue mass known as the atrioventricular (AV) node. This tissue holds onto the electrical signal for a very finely regulated interval of time, as short as 1/14th of a second. At the end of that period, the small atrium has finished its task. The electrical signal then continues on its way and stimulates all the ventricle cells in as little as 1/16th of a second. The larger pump, whose turn it now is, thus contracts and blood is pumped out to the body. All these processes take place in less than one second. 20

An Important Security Precaution: The Heart’s Spare Generator

The AV node, which halts the electrical waves emitted by the main generator for a short while, has another very important function. In the event of a problem in the main generator, this node steps in and works like a spare generator. It cannot produce signals as strong as those from the main generator (it produces only 40 to 50 signals a second), built they are still sufficient to let the heart keep working. If the main generator is damaged for any reason, the spare AV node undertakes an absolutely vital task. People have been observed to live for up to 20 years, even though their main generator has failed to function for various reasons. 21

When the main generator in the heart fails to work, the spare generator immediately goes into action. It is Allah Who created this protective system.

To grasp what we have described so far, the reader needs a certain consciousness and understanding—which you, reading this article, do indeed possess. On close inspection, however, the components constituting the heart must also exhibit consciousness in order to function. For example, the reserve generator needs to be aware of everything that goes on in the human body in order to know when to assume its function, and needs to set the necessary system in motion in the event of any emergency.

Yet how do these components in the various parts of the heart carry out these processes, which we need to have awareness in order to understand? Can the nerve nodes in the heart be considered to have consciousness? Can it be claimed that these nodes calculate the seconds, and perform these calculations non-stop and always totally accurately? On their own, of course, these structures in the heart clearly cannot perform the complex processes necessary for the heart to function. These nodes are merely collections of cells that cannot be regarded as having decision-making mechanisms, will, or calculating ability.

Any cell being able to produce electricity is by itself a great miracle, because such production takes place as a result of thousands of very complex chemical processes. At this point, there are even more questions to be considered:

Why should a cell seek to assume the task of producing electricity? What force obliges it to do this? How does the cell know that the heart needs electrical signals in order to contract, and that the cells that bring about those contractions cannot function without electricity?

In addition, it is not sufficient for just one cell to produce electricity. It needs other cells producing electricity too, and these cells need to combine in the correct order. It is not enough for them to be present together.

They must produce electricity together, as if they had signed an agreement to do so. Furthermore, that production needs to take place within a particular rhythm: Each cell has to possess a chronometer, and these cells need to accurately function once every 0.83 of a second. Additionally, the cells must be able to continue with this production tirelessly, for an entire lifetime. They must also know the level of electrical current that causes the heart to function, and must produce just the right amount of electricity—neither too much nor too little.

The untiring muscle cells in the heart must also possess a characteristic allowing them to function when the electrical current arrives. They must respond to every signal reaching them and respond to each one of the signals produced, 72 times every minute.

Since a specific understanding is required in order to grasp the functioning of this miraculous system, it would be irrational and unscientific to claim that it came into being through blind chance. Such a flawless system cannot be explained in terms of coincidences. The fact that such an electrical circuit has been placed inside the human heart is yet another proof that we have been created by Allah.

We created you, so why do you not confirm the truth? Have you thought about the sperm that you ejaculate? Is it you who create it or are We the Creator? We have decreed death for you and We will not be forestalled. (Surat al-Waqi‘a:57-60)

The Heart’s Accelerator and Brake System

Special tissues in the body regulate events during the heart’s contraction.
  1. Spinal bulb.
  2. Sympathetic impulse.
  3. Sympathetic ganglion.
  4. Vagus nerve.
  5. Motor nerve center.
  6. Spine.
  7. Heart.
  8. A.V. node.
  9. Adrenal gland
  10. Secretion of thyroxin
  11. Capillary vessel
  12. Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

The nervous system, the hormonal system and the organs attached to them--parts of the mechanism that regulates the heart’s functioning--all work together in great harmony.

This section shall examine a very special system that regulates the working of the heart. We shall see how a piece of flesh immediately beneath the rib cage receives information, analyzes it and automatically carries out measures that need to be taken.

As a reminder, in examining the structures in the human body or in other living things, the most important thing is to ask whether they could have come into existence by chance. It’s of course impossible to pose this question with every description provided herein. But with this or any other book about the body, you should constantly ask yourself this vital question, because the answer will let you better appreciate the infinite might of your Creator.

Now, let’s examine the heart’s rhythm-controlling system, while keeping the above question.

The heart beats constantly to a regular rhythm. You can compare this to a car on a fixed-speed highway. Under certain conditions, however, the heart’s tempo needs to speed up or slow down. This is analogous pressure being applied to a car’s throttle or the brake pedal. The brake that decelerates the heart’s rhythm is the vagus nerve, and the accelerator that speeds it up is the sympathetic nerves. 22 The hormone acetylcholine sets the brake (or vagus nerve) into action.

The sympathetic nerves are components of the autonomous nervous system that work outside your free will and regulate the working of your internal organs. They raise blood pressure by narrowing the arteries and help form the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by stimulating the medulla region above the kidney. These hormones increase the heart’s work rate. The hormone thyroxin, secreted by the thyroid, also affects the working of the heart by raising the metabolism.23

So how do these accelerators work? How is the decision to speed up or decelerate taken? Such a regulatory and information exchange system has been constructed within the human body that no artificial information- processing network is nearly as perfect.

That this system functions within your body without your being aware of it, even at this very moment, is evidence that you were created.

Let’s now examine how the controls in question are depressed, and how the decision to accelerate or decelerate is taken—while still asking the necessary questions.

When you perform a movement requiring force, the muscles around the veins accelerate the flow of de-oxygenated blood. This means that more blood goes to the heart and the right atrium. The atrium muscles then contract, and nerve signals formed as a result of that contraction are transmitted via the central nervous system to medulla in the spinal cord, which analyzes these data and immediately sends a command to the heart. The heart’s rhythm is accelerated. This allows more fresh blood to reach the muscles.

A key question: Is it rational and logical that this system could have come into being by chance? People who make such a claim are definitely unable to answer the following questions:

How are those receptors aware that de-oxygenated blood has increased and of the contraction created have been sited in the correct region of the heart, the right atrium where the dirty blood is found?

How did the network that carries the information from these receptors to the spinal cord and the medulla come into being?

How did the spinal cord and medulla—the data-processing center that analyses this data and is able to take the correct decisions—come into existence?

How does the medulla realize that the message reaching it signifies that oxygenated blood has decreased?

With what consciousness does the spinal cord decide that the heart must beat faster in order to send more blood through the lungs?

How did the elements comprising this system come together as one and at the same time, exactly?
Such precise order cannot of course have come into being by chance. Not even a single component of this system—let alone the system itself—could have come into existence by happenstance. In addition to proving the invalidity of the theory of evolution, the above questions also clearly demonstrate Allah’s creation.
Let’s now examine another safety system created by Allah, and witness another proof of His creative artistry.
In addition, the heart needs a special safety mechanism to keep it from beating too fast and damaging itself. Inside the aortic artery emerging from the left-hand part of the heart are receptors that measure blood pressure. As the heartbeat rises, so does the pressure of blood reaching the aortic wall. When this pressure exceeds a certain level, the safety mechanism goes into operation. The receptors that detect the increasing pressure send warnings via the spinal cord to the medulla. This analyses the situation and sends a new command to the heart. This slows down the heart rate, and blood pressure is lowered. Let us now reconsider the pressure gauges inside the aorta and the heart’s braking mechanism.

Is it an unconscious coincidence that the heart is aware that too rapid a heartbeat will damage the body and that it should take measures to counteract this?

Did the receptors that measure blood pressure come into being by chance? And were these then located in the right place—in the aortic wall membrane—by also chance?

Did the nerve link between the receptors and the spinal cord come into existence by chance?

How do the receptor cells recognize that blood pressure has risen, and with what consciousness do they transmit news of this rise to the spinal column?

By what criteria does the medulla analyze the data reaching it? With what consciousness does it realize the importance of the situation?

How did some of the spinal cord’s cells come to assume the role of regulating the heartbeat? Why did they assume that responsibility?

How does a spinal cord cell decide to send a command to the heart? How does it know what form the command it sends must take, so that the heart cells can understand it?

Why do the heart cells obey signals from the spinal cord?

These questions are very important for lifting the curtain of familiarity that forms over the course of time and keeps people perceiving the miracles right before their very eyes.

Most people realize that some situations make their hearts beat faster. When you climb quickly up a staircase, run, or becomes excited, you can feel that your heartbeat has increased, and that later, it returns to normal. No one, however, realizes what a great miracle this truly is. They never understand that the rate of their heartbeat is regulated by a computer-like system inside the heart. Even if they are aware of the existence of a system, still they spend little time thinking about how their bodies’ miraculous systems came into existence, and even strongly avoid doing so. Some even believe that thinking too much about such matters is psychologically unhealthy.

The fact is, however, that Allah wishes us to think deeply. He commands people to ponder what He has created and thus, to better understand His might and power and to fear Him more. In one verse of the Qur’an Allah has revealed how believers should behave, how they should think about the entities created by Him—and how their fear of Him should increase as a result:

Those who remember Allah, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the Earth: “Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire.” (Surah Al ‘Imran: 191)
Preparation for Fight or Flight

The human body has been prepared for situations where it needs to be stronger and more resistant. External stimuli reaching the brain membrane and the lower region produce stress when they exceed a particular level (1). This activates the anterior pituitary (2), the thyroid gland (3), and the adrenal glands (4). Nerves from the brain to the eyes, facial muscles, interior and exterior veins in the skull and the pharynx (5,6,7); nerves leading to the throat, heart and intestines (8); nerves that regulate the functioning of the heart, the veins, the secretion of adrenalin and intestinal movements (9,10,11,12,13); and those leading to the intestines and bladder (14) cause this to affect the entire body.

At certain times, the human body needs to be stronger and more resistant, and exhibiting higher performance than normal. When danger is encountered, for instance, an individual must immediately fight or flee.

Under such exceptional circumstances, it’s of course essential that the heart beat faster and pump more blood for the necessary adjustments to be made within the body.

The requisite measures have indeed been taken for such circumstances. In extraordinary situations, the adrenal glands secrete a hormone called adrenalin. This hormone molecule makes a very long journey, in comparison to the length of its own molecule, to reach the heart cells, commanding them to contract faster. (See the Chapter 4 on the hormonal system.) The glands located atop the kidneys which produce this hormone are acquainted with the heart cells and know what chemical language they will understand. At the same time, they possess the knowledge that the body must become more resistant and that therefore, the heart needs to beat faster. The heart cells obey this command and begin beating more quickly, providing the extra oxygen the body requires in urgent situations.

Indispensable Elements in the Functioning of the Heart

This electronic system located in the heart also needs electrical signals if it is to function properly. In order for electrical signals to be produced, the sodium, potassium and calcium ions need to be present in specific quantities in the blood. Since the blood levels of these substances are regulated by such organs as the kidney, intestines, stomach and lungs, it becomes even more apparent the impossibility of this system having come into being through such a fictitious mechanism as evolution.

The heart and the technology it possesses astonish scientists. It is Allah, the praiseworthy, Who creates our hearts, with their extraordinary features that cannot be explained in terms of any evolutionary mechanism.

Now, bearing in mind the features of the heart examined so far, imagine that someone has succeeded in developing a device resembling the heart—a flawless pump capable of working for 70 years without stopping for even a second, one that creates its own electricity, needs no maintenance or parts replaced, and that automatically adjusts its working speed and power thanks to a built-in electrical system. Such success could be achieved, of course, only as the result of technology, technical experience and long study. Nobody can imagine that such a device could come into being by chance. That would be totally irrational.

Nonetheless, to imagine that the heart came about by chance is even more illogical and irrational than thinking that any other product of technology—a television, for example—could come into existence by chance.

First of all, in the heart there is technology a far superior to any man-made device. Most important of all, however, the chance development of the heart is by itself of no significance. In addition to the heart, thousands of kilometers of blood vessels—as well as the blood inside them, the kidneys that filter that blood, the lungs that provide the blood with oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide it carries, the digestive system that provides nutrients for the blood, the liver that refines these nutrients, the nervous system that regulates the functioning of the heart, the brain that manages the body as a whole, the bone system that keeps the body together, the hormonal system that assists the functioning of the heart, and thousands of similar elements—would have to have come into being in a single moment, and again by a single random event. Yet each of these possesses a special creation that leaves absolutely no room for chance. It’s therefore as impossible for the heart to come into being by chance as for any product of technology to do so.

We are looking at a most evident truth here. The heart was created by Allah, together with all the systems and elements that function along with it.

The Blood Vessels

The body is interpenetrated by millions of tubes, both large and small. If this venous network in a single human were spread out in a straight line, it would stretch more than 60,000 miles. 24 The venous system is so perfected that the required connections have been established to everywhere in the body. The tubes never become knotted, never open onto any unnecessary places, possess no dead ends. They extend all over the body and return to their starting point.

For a piping system to be installed in any building, a plan is necessary beforehand. The circulatory system in the human body is of a far greater perfection that any man-made plan.

Connections have been established with every point in the body by the veins and arteries entering and leaving the heart.

In addition, the length of the blood vessels in the human body is around 100,000 kilometers (or 60,000 miles), whereas that in an average-size building will be only a few kilometers long. This plumbing, made of special metallic or vinyl compounds, give rise to problems within a few decades. Joints leak, some pipes gradually corrode, and others give rise to leaks inside the walls. All these problems arise even though the building is an immobile structure, and the plumbing never moves.

On the other hand, the capillary network inside a healthy body fulfils its function for an entire lifetime, never requiring maintenance or spare parts. But in addition, the human body is not immobile, but moves, walks, runs, sits and stands. The veins constantly stretch and compress under these actions, but so perfectly created are the veins that no problem ever arises, unless individuals make movements that damage their own health.

The Incomparable Creation in the Human Body

Now consider a human body with no veins, and ask an engineer to draw up plans for placing veins inside that body. That plan must provide all the necessary connections for every cell, from the depths of the liver to the bone marrow, from the eyelids to the kidneys. In addition, depending on the function of every organ, the thickness and properties of every vein must be planned out. Clearly, one engineer could never draft such a blueprint. Even if everyone in the world were to work on it together, the result would still be the same.

Neither their life spans nor their intellects would be sufficient to produce the circulatory network. It’s impossible to maintain that a blueprint that billions of people together could not manage to draw up emerged as the result of blind chance. This system leaves no room for chance in even a single stage, clearly revealing that human beings were created by Allah.

The Journey Begins. . .

The chief purpose of the heart-vein system is to transport necessary substances that allow the body’s cells to function, and to carry away waste materials. An adult’s heart pumps 9,000 liters (or 2,380 gallons) of blood a day through a network that is 100,000 kilometers (60,000 miles) in length.25

  1. Brain
  2. Lung
  3. Heart

Now, imagine that you are the size of a cell and set out on a journey through the circulatory system.

Your starting point is the heart’s upper left pump—in other words the left atrium. The area you are in is full of clean, oxygen-rich blood. Around you are millions of oxygen- bearing red blood cells (erythrocytes). Immediately beneath you is a valve leading to the heart’s right atrium. It can open in only one direction—down.

With the sudden contraction of the atrium, the valve cover opens. The blood with you in it begins filling the heart’s lower left ventricle. You are now in the left ventricle, a very powerful pump. The valve now closes behind you to prevent your returning to the atrium where you came from.

The left ventricle is a powerful pump, capable of sending blood to the furthest point in the body. At the exit of this pump is another one-way valve leading to the aortic artery, and its function is similar: to prevent the blood you are in from returning to the heart.

The left ventricle now contracts strongly. This valve opens outwards. The blood carrying you is sent quickly toward the aorta, the largest artery.As you approach the aortic artery wall, you encounter a most interesting structure. As if the artery’s inner wall has been polished, and its smooth and oiled surface reduces friction and allows the blood to flow more easily.

Take a short break in your journey to examine the aorta and the arteries in greater detail.

The Strongest Vein

As you’ve seen, the vessels that carry the blood from the heart are called arteries, and those that carry blood from the tissues to the heart are known as veins. Arteries are generally buried deep within the tissues. In some places, however—for example, in your wrists, temples, neck and ankles—they run much closer to the surface. In these regions, you can feel the passage of arterial blood with every beat of your heart putting pressure on the artery walls.

This wall made up by the cells is strong that no blood can leak out of it. Almighty Allah gives the cells constituting the embryo the command to join together and He inspires their behavior in them.

Above, the stages in the embryonic cells forming the veins. Dispersed embryo cells in the mother’s stomach (1). The cells begin to combine and arrange themselves side by side (2,3). The cells constitute veins by adhering tightly to one another, like a wall (4).

The artery’s internal surface resembles large numbers of different-shaped paving stones laid out to form a regular surface. However, the “stones” here are cells.

Let us now concentrate. Cells are living things. One group of living cells have been laid out next to one another, exactly as paving slabs are, to create a smooth, regular surface. This surface, curving a full 360 degrees, forms a pipe. The venous system is formed by millions of similar pipes joining together in order.
How did this come about?

First of all the cells, must be flat and of such shapes as to fit tightly against one another. What force, then, created so many billions of cells in this interlocking form?

While the body was still in its mother’s womb, these cells must have been laid out just like paving stones, side by side. Who set out these billions of cells, so smoothly and regularly?

If just one cell is missing from the arterial wall, then blood will leak out from that spot. Who is it, then, who builds this wall so accurately?

“Chance” cannot be the answer to these questions.

Furthermore, it’s not a metal tube from a factory template, that we’re considering here, but rather a living vessel formed by the coming-together of living cells. Why do these tiny living units spend their lives lining a tube? Who set them out in this way and gave them such a responsibility?

Again, the answer to these questions cannot be “Chance”! But evolutionists never think about details of this sort. Rather, they ignore these facts, and are unwilling even to consider them. Evolutionists make speeches and write books about circulatory tissues that include large quantities of Latin terms. Yet they never answer the question of how these cells came together in such supreme order—because the only answer they can supply is “Chance.”

Since they know how demeaning such an invalid response will be, they gloss over the issue with illogical statements like, “These cells came together and formed the veins during the evolutionary process.”
If a scientist offers such an explanation, then people with no great knowledge of scientific literature may think that he must have some scientific facts behind it—though since the scientist has rather glossed over the subject, people won’t be able to understand it.

Nevertheless, evolutionists give no answer as to how the arteries and veins came into existence. There are many thousands of other questions to which they also give no answer. They avoid entering into such discussions and gloss over the subject with unspecific words.

In short, no evolutionist can account for the presence of the circulatory network in the human body, as you can very easily prove for yourself. Tell any evolutionist about the perfection of the veins and arteries, and how the cells are all set out in precise order. Then ask how this structure first came about. The only reply you will receive is, “By chance.”

In fact, however, there is only one true answer to this question; it is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Who created the veins, the blood in the veins, the heart that pumps this blood, and all the other countless of systems within the human body.

Flexibility in the Veins

The special creation in the structure of the arteries is not seen only in the flawless sequence of the cells. Immediately outside the layer formed by these cells is another layer of muscular cells that are exceedingly flexible. This is another example of creation. Elastic fibers increase the veins’ resistance to the blood pressure that rises when the heart beats. In addition, the elasticity imparted to the veins allows extra blood to travel through them.

If the heart pumped blood at high pressure through a venous system that was inelastic, then an extra great burden would be placed on the heart, and blood pressure inside the arteries would be very high. All these details are another indication of the incomparable nature of Allah’s creation.

The Journey Continues

As we keep on with our journey, the aortic artery bifurcates and heads in two different directions. The blood flowing upward meets the needs of the brain and arms, and that blood heading downwards fulfills the needs of the rest of the body. Imagine that your journey is proceeding toward the lower part of the body.

One can obtain a better idea of the volume taken up by the blood vessels in the body, shown magnified in the above picture, by means of a comparison. If all the vessels were laid out flat, that area would cover 6,000 square meters (7,176 square yards). The diagram at left shows the interconnections between and structures of the heart, arteries, veins and blood vessels.

On this route, there are a large number of detours leading to the liver, stomach, upper and lower intestines, the kidneys and the legs. As you proceed, you see that the artery enclosing you splits into many separate branches that become increasingly narrow. These countless bifurcations carry blood to the furthest reaches of the body. As you enter one of them, you see the vessel you are in becomes ever narrower. You are now no longer in an artery, but in a capillary vessel, with a diameter of 0.0002 inch.

Soon the vessel becomes so narrow that there is room for only a single erythrocyte to pass through—with difficulty. In this portion of your journey, you realize that there is a rapid exchange in the cells around you. The erythrocyte cells begin delivering the valuable cargoes of oxygen molecules they have carried on their long journeys, releasing them to cells in need of oxygen and taking up the carbon dioxide these cells have produced. In the same way, nutrient molecules carried in the blood are taken up by cells that need them.
The time has now come to head back.

When the erythrocytes give up their oxygen, their bright red color changes to a dark red. As your journey goes on, the veins become increasingly wide again. Other erythrocytes loaded with carbon dioxide from other blood vessels join in, and the blood volume increases. You shall now leave the capillary vessels and proceed on our way in the veins.

Another Marvel of Creation in the Body: The Veins

Blood flows in the arteries thanks to the heart’s pumping pressure. The effect of this pressure decreases in the blood vessels, however, and by the time it reaches the veins, the distant heart’s pumping power has declined considerably.

So how will the blood complete its return journey?

Imagine that you are in one of these veins, with a long journey back to the heart lying before you. You have to pass the regions of the legs, stomach and chest and climb upward for a long distance, overcoming the force of gravity all the same while. There is a need for a system such that every day, thousands of liters of fluid are able to travel back up from the toes to the heart.

The veins have been located with special planning, and surrounded by skeletal muscles. Every time you take a step, for example, the leg muscles that contract force blood upward at the same time. Thanks to this planning, the veins have their very own pumping system.

Toward the end of the 1.5-meter (4.92-foot) journey between the feet and the heart, another problem is encountered. When the main veins reach the body’s central region, they are no longer surrounded by skeletal muscles. Here, the respiratory muscles support the veins. The main vein immediately beneath the lung contracts every time you take a breath. The negative pressure that forms in the expanding chest therefore, helps blood to return to the heart.

One feature in the veins represents one of the finest examples of the flawless features in the body. Within the veins are located a number of valves that open solely in the direction of the heart. In this way, blood never flows back under the effect of gravity, but keeps on toward the heart.

A great many valves have been located within the veins, each of them possessing a very special creation. Each one has hinges, again composed of tissue, so created as to permit the valve to open in one direction only. We are looking at an engineering miracle here when we consider how this perfect system came about. The workers on the world’s longest pipeline have assumed three major duties, serving as engineers, as workers, and also the actual construction material.

The arteries have their own unique pumping systems. As the skeletal muscles contract and put pressure on the arteries, valves in the contracting region are forced open, and the blood heads directly to the heart.

The blueprints and projects for this construction are found in the data banks in the cell nuclei. Each cell “reads” and interprets the plans for the project just like an engineer—by itself without doubt a great miracle. People feel great admiration and respect for a professor who devotes many years to academic studies, but are unaware that their own cells are able to read, understand and put into operation projects far more complex—or else they simply ignore this fact.

Depending on the plan they interpret, cells know where they have to serve in the pipeline’s construction. They also know which of the millions of cells working on this construction project they must combine with. When they find the place where they belong, they start working like laborers to construct their individual part of the pipeline. Yet for construction material, they use themselves. Every cell working on this project devotes itself to being a tiny part of the pipeline for the rest of its life.

In the walls of the veins so constructed, no protrusions or cavities are to be found. Their inner surfaces are just as smooth as if they had been polished by a marble craftsman—with one small difference, however; these surfaces consist of living cells.

1) At rest.  2) The muscles contract, compress the arteries and force the blood towards the heart. The valve beneath prevents any back-flow.  3) The muscles relax and the arteries widen and fill with the blood below. The valve above prevents any back-flow.

As the construction work proceeds, some cells make a different decision according to the plan they have read and decide to form a valve inside the vein. Thousands of cells combine and cling to the inner wall. Other cells constitute the hinges of these valves—again, by identifying just where they need to be according to the project’s requirements. The way that the hinge opens only in one direction is, again, the result of cells being able to interpret the overall plan and of their construction ability. These cells act in the knowledge that a liquid will flow through the vessel they are in, in which direction it needs to flow, and what measures they need to take to ensure that the flow is constant.

A few millimeters on from this valve, the same miracle takes place. Here, other cells with a similar consciousness form another valve. As if in agreement with the cells that constructed the former valve, theirs too opens in the same direction. If the cells which constructed a few of these valves were to make them in such a way as to open in the opposite direction, then blood could not flow through the veins, and life would immediately come to an end. The thousands of valves that exist right throughout the venous system are all constructed to work in harmony with one another.

This system is indisputably the work of a most superior Creator, and the cells can exhibit such consciousness, reason, and self-sacrifice thanks only to the Superior Force that creates them. It is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Who locates the projects for the world’s longest pipeline and thousands of other systems in the human body within the cell nuclei, and Who gives the cells the ability to read, interpret and act upon these instructions.

O man! What has deluded you in respect of your Noble Lord? He Who created you and formed you and proportioned you and assembled you in whatever way He willed. (Surat al-Infitar: 6-8)
The Return to the Heart

Now let’s return to our journey through the human veins. Thanks to the small one-way valves in the arteries which we have just examined in some detail, we can now head directly towards the heart—returning there some 40 seconds after we set out.

The first part of our journey began in the heart’s upper left chamber, and ends in the upper right chamber. As that journey began, we set out in bright red blood, and the first part of the sojourn ends in blood that is darker red. It is now time to set out on another journey, for the blood needs to be cleansed of its carbon dioxide and replenished with carbon dioxide.

You shall be remaining in the right ventricle, but for only a very short time. As the right ventricle contracts, another valve opens and blood is expelled toward the lungs. The valve behind you is the last safety precaution preventing deoxygenated blood from returning back to the heart. You now speed rapidly towards the lungs inside blood loaded with carbon dioxide.

The journey from the heart to the lungs is another brief one, for which reason it is known as the “small circulation.” On arriving in the lung, the red blood cells around you release the carbon dioxide they carry—whose transportation comes about through a great many complex chemical processes—and begin to take up oxygen. This exchange occurs at a breathtaking speed.

Every minute 56,000,000,000,000,000,000,000—that is, 56 x 1021 (56 septillion) oxygen atoms reach the cells in the lung.26 A great many micro-systems work together to enable just one oxygen atom to pass to the erythrocytes. Each unit works in total harmony with the one before it, allowing the oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange to take place without halting for even an instant.

At the end of this breathtakingly rapid exchange, the erythrocytes around you become loaded with oxygen. Now, together with these cells, inside the veins of the lung, you set out for the heart. Eventually your journey ends back where it started from. The oxygen-rich clean blood is ready for another circuit around the body.

The Computer that Controls the Flow

There is another very interesting and significant feature of the circulatory system. It does not simply forward the blood like an ordinary pipeline system, but also regulates how much blood needs to go to which organ when necessary.

This is most astonishing, for a piping system to determine how much of the liquid it carries needs to go to which organ, and by itself to make the requisite adjustments. Arteries are able to alter the flow of blood by contracting and expanding.

Take the brain’s needs as an example. The brain is an organ that requires a steady, dependable supply of abundant blood, since it controls all the functions inside the body. Blood flow to the brain must continue at any cost. Even if blood flow to all other organs is cut off as the result of hemorrhage, a great many nerves act together so that blood can be keep being sent to the brain, and the diameters of the arteries are adjusted accordingly. Some veins leading to other organs are temporarily short-circuited, and the flow of blood is directed to the veins leading to the brain.

In her book The Incredible Machine, the evolutionist Susan Schiefbein compares the venous system to a computer:

The heart and blood vessels do more than speed or slow our blood flow to meet the body’s needs. They carry the scarlet stream to different tissues under differing pressures to fuel different actions. Blood rushes to the stomach when we eat, to the lungs and muscles when we swim, to the brain when we read. To satisfy these changing metabolic needs, the cardiovascular system integrates information as well as any computer, then responds as no computer can.27

This system, comparable to computer circuitry, without doubt came into being as the result of Allah’s creation, rather than by chance, as evolutionists would have us believe.

Inter-Related Miracles

Allah has created humans with such great artistry that every system in your body is connected to others. Any flaw in the functioning of one system causes a fault in the working of another. To understand this more clearly, examine the relationship between the circulatory and other systems.

Nutrients assimilated through digestion are carried to the cells of the body by the circulatory system. Therefore, the digestive and circulatory systems must have been created at the same time.

Chemical signals produced by the hormonal glands are carried to the relevant organs by the circulatory system. Therefore, the circulatory and hormonal systems must have been created at the same time.
Carbon dioxide in the blood is eliminated by the respiratory system. Therefore, the circulatory and respiratory systems must have been created at the same time.

Blood must constantly be cleansed in the kidneys, so the circulatory and excretory systems must have been created at the same time.

Blood cannot move through the veins unless the skeletal muscles contract, and so the circulatory and skeletal systems must have been created at the same time.

Blood cells are created in the bone marrow, so the circulatory and skeletal systems must have been created at the same time.

These examples refer only to the effects of other systems on circulation. A great number of similar examples could be cited. And another point not to be forgotten is that the circulatory system nourishes the organs in all the other systems. The tongue, saliva glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and other organs, which are all part of the digestive system—all are nourished by blood vessels. To give some further examples:

The hormone glands in the endocrine system.
Organs of the excretory system, the kidneys for example.
Components of the respiratory system, such as the lungs.
The muscles that constitute the smooth and voluntary muscular systems, and the bones constituting the skeletal system.

None of the organs in the body could survive in the absence of the circulatory system. All these connections and inter-connected systems, taken together, are some of the strongest proofs invalidating the theory of evolution. There is flawless harmony and cooperation among the systems within the human body. In order for them to serve any purpose at all, they all must have been present at the exact same time.
This leads us back to the same truth. All the features of the human body were created by Allah in a single moment.


1- John Farndon ve Angela Koo, Human Body Factfinder, Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., ?ngiltere, 1999, s. 63
2- Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, ?ubat 1998, sf.61
3- R. von Bredow, GEO, Kas?m 1997
4- Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery, Harper&Row, Publishers, New York: s.108
5- Guyton and Hall, Text Book of Medical Physiology, 9. Bas?m, s.432
6- Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, ?ubat 1998, sf. 62
7- The Circulatory System, Regina Avraham, The Encylopedia of Health, Chelsea House Publishers, Bölüm 4, s. 49
8- Prof. Dr. Ahmet Noyan, Ya?amda ve Hekimlikte Fizyoloji, 10. Bask?, Meteksan A.?., Mart 1998, s.670-673
9- The Circulatory System, Regina Avraham, The Encylopedia of Health, s. 50
10- Arthur C. Guyton, Text Book of Medical Physiology, W.B. Saunders Company, 7th Edition, s. 75
11- Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kal?t?m ve Evrim, Meteksan Yay?nlar?, Ankara, 1995, s. 420
12- Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kal?t?m ve Evrim, s. 416-420
13- Eldra Pearl Solomon, Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology, edition, W.B. Saunders Comp., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1992, s.148
14- Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, ?ubat 1998,sf.66-67
15- Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, New York: Free Press, 1996, s.79-97
16- Regina Avraham, The Circulatory System, The Encylopedia of Health, s.13
17- Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, Saunders College Publishing, ABD, 1993, s.890
18- Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of The Human Body, Michael Cavendish Books Limited, Londra, s. 70
19- Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of The Human Body, s.74
20- Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of The Human Body, s. 74-75
21- Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of The Human Body, s. 74-75
22- Curtis&Barnes, Invitation to Biology, Worth Publishers, Inc., New York, 1985, s.415
23- Vander, Sherman, Luciano, ?nsan Fizyolojisi, Bilimsel ve Teknik Yay?nlar? Çeviri Vakf?, 1997, s.222-228
24- Lionel Bender, Science Facts, Human Body, Crescent Books, New York, New Jersey, 1992. s.32
25- Marshall Cavendish, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of The Human Body, s. 53
26- Regina Avraham, The Circulatory System, The Encylopedia of Health, s.43
27- Susan Schiefelbein, The Incredible Machine, Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society,1986