THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


We ourselves provide the substances necessary for the vital functions in our bodies to continue—in other words, for the functioning of our organs and for the renewal of our cells—from what we eat and drink. However, the meat, bread, fruit or vegetables we consume all has to undergo radical changes, in other words to be digested, in order to be broken down into substances in a form that our bodies can use.


It is the digestion of food that allows a newborn baby weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms (4.5 to 6.5 pounds) to grow into a 1.80-meter (5.9-foot) , 75 to -80 kilogram (165-to 175-pound) adult 20 to 25 years later. The source of this impressive difference in volume is the way in which substances in the food eaten by the child gradually become assimilated by the body. Some of these nutrients provide the necessary energy for living, and others are added to the body and in the form of flesh and bone. Those parts that serve no purpose are expelled from the body.


The digestive system contains the best refinery in the world. The substances taken in by this refining system are first broken down into their raw materials, then sent to be used by the necessary regions of the body. Since the materials, once broken down, are very different from one another, the new substances that emerge are also entirely different.


One can compare the workings of the digestive system to that of an oil refinery. The crude oil that enters a refinery as a raw material is subjected to a number of processes and gradually broken down, as a result of which quite different products are obtained. As the outcome of these complex processes in the refinery is produced, the gasoline that fuels your car, the basic material of the asphalt you walk on and the plastic containers you use. Similarly, very different substances emerge as a result of digestion. However, the biochemical events that take place in your stomach and intestines are far more complex than those in an oil refinery, and come about thanks to a far superior working system. In addition, these events take place not in an industrial refinery equipped with all the latest technology, but in your own body. The food you eat at breakfast is subjected to thousands of chemical processes, without you ever being aware of them while you go about your daily life, attend class in school or walk along the street.



The crude oil that enters a refinery undergoes various processes, as a result of which very different products are obtained. In the same way, nutrients entering the body are turned into very different substances after being digested.

For these chemical processes to take place, a long “conveyor belt” is needed. Special refinery systems need to be located at every point in this channel so that the materials in it can be subjected to change. The channel in question needs to be at least 8 to 10 meters (26 to 33 feet) long.


However, the human body is only an average of 1.70 to 1.80 meters (5.5 to 6 feet) in height. That means that a canal 10 meters (32.8 feet) long needs to be squeezed into a body that is five times shorter than it. This requires a very inventive industrial design. Indeed, the human body has been created with just such a characteristic. The alimentary canal in question (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines) has been situated within the human body in line with a very special arrangement, under which a 10 meter (32.8 feet) canal has been carefully packaged into a body only 1.70 meters (5.5 feet) long.


After entering the body, consumed foodstuffs embark on a 10- meter journey through the digestive system, during which these foods are subjected to a series of mechanical and chemical processes. As they pass through the five-part, 10-meter (32.8-foot) canal, they are broken down by means of mechanical processes such as grinding, kneading and rinsing, and to chemical effects performed by liquids secreted into the canal by various glands.


Digestion has begun in the mouth and continues in the stomach and small intestine. In the small intestine, the useful substances in foods are dissolved for transportation in the blood vessels.


The Refinery’s Entrance


As soon as you place food in your mouth, the digestive system goes into action. The food is broken down and ground up by the teeth, which have been specially created with this process in mind. They are covered in the hardest known natural material—enamel—and are also very resistant to corrosive chemicals.


Every tooth has a shape appropriate to its function. The front teeth are sharp and can break loose pieces of food. Canine teeth are pointed, and slice up the food. The molars have been created to grind the food down. If the teeth in our mouths were all of the same sort—if we had 32 canine teeth or 32 incisors—we would find it almost impossible to eat.


Another example of the creation in the teeth can be seen in their arrangement. Every tooth is in exactly the right place. Incisors are at the front, where they need to be, and the molars are in the back—again in just the right position. If they were to change places, they would become effectively useless.




The teeth play an important role in the digestion process. Above can be seen 1) the teeth of a newborn baby, 2) the teeth of nine-year-old child, 3) the jawbone and teeth of an adult.

There is also complete harmony between the independent upper and lower teeth. The teeth in both regions have been so created as to sit comfortably against one another when your jaw is closed. For example, if just one of your molars were longer than the others or had an excess protrusions, you would be unable to close your mouth. You would then be unable to fulfill such basic actions as eating or speaking.


Newborn babies have no teeth in their mouths. But they have no need of them in their early days since their first food consists of their mother’s milk. Gradually, however, as the time comes for them to eat solid foods, various changes take place in babies’ soft palates. Some cells here suddenly begin storing calcium, as if they had received a signal. Later, these millions of cells combine together in complete order and set themselves out, one on top of and side by side each other, as if they know what they must do. Cells that have stored excess calcium later die, and these dead cells constitute the body of the teeth.


After the millions of cells have stored their calcium, they clump together, side by side, to form a large block. Again, the cells constituting this block determine its shape. At this point, another great miracle of creation can be perceived. For example, the cells in the bottom jawbone know what kind of shape the cells far away from them in the upper palate will construct. Both groups of cells construct their overall blocks in such a manner that they will fit together in the most ideal way. Thus when the jaw is closed, the molars on top sit squarely against those on the bottom.


Any disharmony in this form would cause you great discomfort. However, thanks to the unbelievable consciousness exhibited by the cells in the palate, the 32 calcium blocks are constructed in the most ideal forms for one another.


Details such as the resistant structure of teeth, the way they are set out, and how their shapes and functions complement one another shows the evident creation in them. There is only one reason for the conscious actions of these cells. Like all the cells in the body, it is Almighty Allah Who gives to the cells that comprise the teeth their properties.


THE PROTECTIVE BACTERIA IN YOUR BODY


In recent years, new bacteria active in the human body have been discovered in the rear part of the tongue. Their function is to kill harmful germs in the stomach. However, to kill them is not as easy as you might expect. Bacteria merely carry out chemical synthesis, and there are many aspects to their activity. Just like a chain of dominoes knocking one another over, it is sufficient for just factor one to be lacking for the whole process to come to a halt, because just as with dominoes, every component works by affecting the later ones. The system required to set the bacteria in motion can be summarized as follows:

The nitrate found in green leafy vegetables is turned into nitrite by bacteria in clefts at the back of the tongue, where oxygen does not reach.  Then, when the nitrite produced meets the acid in the saliva, it changes to nitric oxide, which has the effect of killing germs.

Professor Nigel Benjamin of Aberdeen University in Scotland, who discovered the bacteria, describes them in this way:

We knew that nitric oxide is quite toxic to some bacteria, so we said hey, what may be happening is that nitrite is deliberately being made in the mouth so that it mixes up with the food we eat and gets acidified, which will generate lots of nitric oxide, which will then kill all the nasty germs we eat with our food. *
* Sarah Richardson,
“Tongue Bugs,” Discover, Vol.16,
October 1995, Issue 10.

Scientists discovered the existence of these bacteria only very recently. However, these bacteria, protecting us from acids by producing nitrites, have been in existence ever since human beings were first created. These are some examples of Allah’s infinite affection for us. Everyone must give thanks for these blessings.
If you tried to number Allah’s blessings, you could never count them. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surat an-Nahl: 18)

Special Digestive Fluid


As food is ground up by the teeth, it also undergoes a special chemical attack, carried out by the saliva.


  1. Parathyroid gland
  2. Mouth muscles.
  3. Sublingual gland

You cannot taste food if your mouth is dry, because it is your saliva that permits you to experience flavors. Above, the salivary glands and the muscles that act during chewing. Saliva, which one is generally unaware of, is created by Allah as a blessing.

People are seldom much aware of this fluid in their daily lives, and people do not generally consider whether or not it is secreted, nor in what quantities. Saliva is believed to be a very simple fluid, when in fact it is a most special compound, containing specific levels of various chemicals.


First of all, saliva permits you to taste your food. The flavor-giving molecules in food dissolve in saliva and combine with the taste-receptor nerve endings on your tongue. Only in this way can you actually taste what you are eating. That’s also the reason why you cannot taste food when your mouth is dry.


Saliva is secreted by three different glands, and makes it easier to swallow food by moistening it, as well as containing chemical substances that dissolve what we eat into particles of benefit to the body. In the saliva itself are two different fluids with very different properties. One thoroughly breaks down carbohydrates and turns them partially into sugar. For example, if you place a piece of bread—a carbohydrate—in your mouth and wait for a minute, you will taste the sugar of the broken-down carbohydrate. The other saliva fluid is very dense. Thanks to this liquid’s stickiness, the particles of food that spread around the mouth as we chew are brought together in a kind of paste.


If saliva were not secreted, our food would be too dry for us to swallow, and we could neither swallow it, nor speak properly. We would be unable to consume any solids, and would have to feed ourselves solely on liquids—which would make life rather difficult.


Our mouths work just like chemical laboratories in breaking down the starch in what we eat. The enzyme known as ptyalin in saliva is especially produced for this purpose, to break down the starch and turn it into sugar.


The digestion taking place in the mouth is not only chemical. Mechanical digestion is also performed by the teeth. These two forms of digestion complement each other.


The Role of the Tongue in Digestion


In mechanical digestion, the tongue plays an important role. It possesses a very sensitive sense of taste, and also directs food in the mouth, enabling it to be chewed and swallowed easily.


On the surface and sides of the tongue are some 10,000 or so taste buds, which are sensitive to four different tastes: hot, sweet, salty and bitter. 28 These taste buds allow you to distinguish the flavors of the dozens of different foods you consume every day. They work so well that the tongue can also distinguish the tastes of foods it has never encountered before. That is why a watermelon never tastes bitter to us in the way a grapefruit does, and why a piece of cake never tastes salty. In addition, the taste buds in billions of different people perceive the flavors of food in exactly the same way. The concepts of sweet, salty and bitter are the same for everyone. Scientists describe the tongue’s ability as “extraordinary chemical technology.”


  1. Rear sulcus
  2. Epiglottis
  3. Palatine tonsil
  4. Vallate papillae
  5. Lingual palate curve
  6. Foliate papillae
  7. Fungiform papillae
  8. Filiform papillae
  9. Peak
  10. Mid-line sulcus
  11. Foramen coecum

 


a.Biter
b. Sour
c. Salty
d Sweet

But what would happen if there were fewer taste buds on your tongue?

For one thing, you would be unable to taste what you were eating. You would be oblivious to the taste of puddings, roast meats or bread. Whatever you ate would all taste the same. Dining would cease being a pleasurable blessing and would instead become a chore you had to perform several times every day. Yet that does not happen, and thanks to your taste buds, you can distinguish the flavors of everything you eat, which allows you to enjoy your food.



The Esophagus


In the second stage of the digestive process, food passes through the throat to the stomach, where major digestion will begin. No digestive process takes place during food’s passage down the esophagus. After you swallow, the flat muscles behind the neck push the food into the esophagus. Food is passed down by gravity, as well as of the rhythmic contraction of the esophagus, known as peristalsis. These muscular contractions are so powerful that they enable food to be propelled sideways even if you are lying down. 29 It takes a mere 12 seconds for food to pass through the 25-centimeter (10-inch) long esophagus.


People can use their mouths both for eating and for breathing, because immediately next to the esophagus, down which the food passes, is another tube through which the lungs inhale air. One vital point to be borne in mind here is that if chewed food entered the windpipe instead of the esophagus, you would choke to death. If a piece of food were mistakenly to enter the windpipe, swift death or serious infection would be the consequence. Nor is it any solution for the windpipe to be constantly kept closed. The most rational and practical solution is for the windpipe to feature a valve that can open and close. And so, even when not eating, however, people actually swallow hundreds of times every day—when they swallow saliv, for example.


As already stated, the human body’s creation is perfect, and the windpipe possesses a most reliable security system. A valve consisting of a small piece of tissue at the top of the windpipe automatically closes as you swallow, preventing any food or drink from entering the windpipe. After an act of swallowing has taken place, the valve opens in its former position, and air can once again be inhaled through the windpipe.



Foodstuffs passing down the esophagus begin moving towards the stomach. Very powerful, rhythmic muscular contractions known as peristalsis permit foodstuffs to move along the alimentary canal.

As people eat in their daily lives, nobody is aware of this potential danger. No one ever thinks, “What if what I swallow goes down the wrong way? I wish I had a valve in my windpipe so my food would never get stuck in it.” Neither do people often wonder, “Is that valve working and able to stop me from choking?” In all probability, you were unaware of the importance of the valve in your throat until you read these very lines! However, that valve’s existence keeps you alive at all times, even as you swallowed unconsciously, just a few seconds ago.


  1. The palate closes the nasal passages.
  2. Diaphragm closes

A small valve of tissue on the esophagus automatically closes the windpipe when swallowing. Food or water are thus prevented from entering the windpipe when you eat. After swallowing the valve opens again and air can move through the windpipe

This valve’s evident feature contains a great many details. For example, were a normal adult’s valve the same as a baby’s, that baby would be in serious danger. For that reason, babies’ valves function in a very different way. Their little valve is located higher up in the throat than it is in adults, allowing babies to breathe as they drink their mothers’ milk. That is also why babies do not cry and choke as they nurse. If the valve system in babies were the same as that in adults, then babies might choke unless they held their breath.
However, this same need has existed in every baby who ever lived, and exists in every baby alive today—and is met in the most ideal manner. Apart from those suffering from a specific disorder, everyone was endowed with just the kind of valve they required in infancy. In the same way, when these people become youngsters, the structure of that valve again changes to respond to their different nutritional needs.


THE DETAILED CREATION IN THE STOMACH


  1. Muscle link around pylorus
  2. Liver
  3. Inner part of stomach

Every phase of the stomach’s very detailed creation is directed towards a particular end. Food enters the stomach through a narrow entrance known as the cardia. The muscles in this gap joining the esophagus to the stomach function as a kind of valve, preventing half-digested food from returning to the esophagus. Food then moves to the spherically-shaped top of the stomach and mixes with the stomach acid there, before taking a sudden turn to enter the stomach’s widest part, known as the body.


In this area, which is shorter than the upright part above it, the stomach narrows once again and opens onto the 12 finger intestine through a passage known as the pylorus, or stomach gatekeeper. This passage at the bottom of the stomach also serves as a kind of valve, ensuring that semi-digested food leaves the stomach and moves on to the intestines. The rhythmic wave motion of the powerful stomach muscles, sited in three layers, ensures that food moves correctly from the mouth of the stomach to the pylorus. At the same time, this wave motion helps rinse the food, grinds it into smaller particles and eventually turns it into the semi-liquid mixture known as chyme. The necessity of these detailed processes will become clear in the later stages of the digestive process.


Powerful Stomach Acids Can Digest Even Razor Blades— How Are They Neutralized?


The digestive system in the stomach is very different from that in the mouth. As soon as food descends from the esophagus, cells on the stomach’s inner surface begin secreting a powerful substance known as gastric acid. Together with this substance, fluids known as pepsin and hydrochloric acid (or HCl) are also secreted, powerful enough to be able to dissolve a razor blade. But their presence is essential if such hard-to-digest substances as protein are to be assimilated. But the stomach itself consists of proteins. How is it that this powerful acid does not damage the stomach itself?



Mucus secretion protects the stomach from acids.

This is one of the countless examples of the creation in the human body. The stomach does not actually digest itself, because there are cells within the deep troughs in the stomach’s rough wall that possess very different properties. Maintaining a very delicate balance, some cells in the stomach secrete HCl acid, while others next to them give off a sticky fluid known as mucus, which lines the stomach wall and shields it from the acid, preventing acids and enzymes from harming the stomach’s cells. Mucus also prevents ingested viruses and other micro-organisms—which cause infections—from entering the cells, and also lubricates the passage of food through the alimentary canal.
But how do all these processes take place? How does this protective environment form within the stomach? Could the stomach cells decide on their own to produce these substances, or discovered or learned the formula for this protective mucus coating?


For cells to be able to do such a thing and for the production of the necessary substances for digestion, a number of cells must first become aware that food needs to be digested. Those same cells must also know that a substance like acid is needed for digestion to occur. Then those cells must discover the formula for HCl, the most suitable acid, and begin producing it. At the same time, for the production of the protective coating, various other cells need to establish that this acid—so powerful that one drop of it can burn a hole in a carpet—could harm them and then analyze the acid and develop a formula to neutralize it. Any error in that formula would doom the stomach to being dissolved by its own acid.


Of course, the emergence of mutually complementary substances in the stomach is by no means as simple as this summary may suggest. The determination of the formulae alone is a major phenomenon, and it’s quite impossible for any cell to arrive at a chemical formula and then use it to generate a substance. A cell consisting of unconscious atoms does not possess the necessary intellectual capability.



Above is shown a cross-section of the stomach wall. Cells in the stomach wall, which is made up of several layers, all have different functions. Such a detailed creation could obviously never have come into being by chance. It is Allah, the Omnisicent, Who creates the stomach.

Even if we transgressed the bounds of logic and assumed that human stomach acid did actually come into existence this way, still we could not expect the complementary protective substance to emerge over the course of time. It is out of the question for acids strong enough to dissolve razor to remain for as long as the 2 to 3 days they would take to destroy the stomach itself, let alone for millions of years.


Bearing all this in mind, we are confronted by one evident truth. The co-existence of hydrochloric acid, together with the mucus that protects the stomach from it, is one of the countless instances of the order in Allah’s creation. Allah has created the human body as a whole, using a flawless creation.


The Fluid That Turns into Acid through Digestion


This is by no means the only example of planning in the way the stomach works. As you have seen, the system in the human body is so perfect that precautions have been taken, right from the outset, to meet every possible eventuality. For example, the presence of digestive acids in an empty stomach, no matter how much the mucus protects it, will shortly have a damaging effect. That is why no digestive acid is secreted when the stomach is empty, thus removing any danger. Present in the empty stomach is an enzyme called pepsinogen, which has no digestive properties. When food arrives in the stomach, however, the stomach cells begin secreting their HCl, which immediately alters the structure of the pepsinogen in the empty stomach, turning it into the very powerful fragmentation enzyme pepsin. This immediately breaks down the foods in the stomach. 30



The layers of stomach muscles are arranged in three separate directions. Thanks to this structure the stomach is easily able to move up and down, left and right, and diagonally. This special creation of Allah allows food in the stomach to be ground down more easily.

Shown above is the anatomy of the stomach.
  1. Muscle link around the pylorus
  2. Gastric gland
  3. Inner surface of stomach
  4. Stomach protrusions
  5. Epithelium
  6. Mucus neck cells
  7. Main cells
  8. Membrane cells
  9. pepsinogen


(a) Enlarged image of stomach pits and glands.
(b) Diagram of the production of pepsinogen by the main cells. This production takes place in this way:
The main cells (1) produce enzymes (such as pepsinogen), which produce protein. Membrane cells (2) produce the acid HCl, which activates the main cells. To maintain that any interconnected system like this came into being by chance is of course irrational and illogical.

A little thought will show that any liquid that is harmless as long as the stomach is empty but turns into a powerful fragmenter when the stomach fills could not have emerged by means of unconscious coincidences. It is absolutely impossible for one substance to turn into another by chance, especially by adopting the correct formula on each occasion—let alone for this process to take place in human beings before every meal. This leaves the possibility of chance entirely out of the question.


Clearly, some force knows when the stomach cells are to secrete which substance, permits the cells to act appropriately, and regulates the timing of HCl acid secretion. This force that reigns in the human body is Allah, the Creator of the entire universe, all the living things in the universe, and human beings.
Your Stomach’s Special Suspension System


  1. Stomach membrane
  2. Esophagus
  3. Muscle link
  4. Circular muscle layer
  5. Vertical muscle layer
  6. Inclined muscle layer
  7. Muscle layer around pylorus
  8. Folds
  9. Duodenum

The stomach muscles are arranged in three separate directions. This allows the stomach to move easily from right to left, up and down, and diagonally, permitting food to make better contact with the stomach fluids. However, movements of this kind always bring with them a drawback: friction.

After eating, you experience a feeling of fullness, even of heaviness. But apart from that, you may well be unaware of the considerable activity that’s happening in your stomach. Your stomach constantly twists from right to left and up and down, in the effort to digest food better. Thanks to your stomach’s special suspension system, however, you remain unaware of these movements.


The stomach is located next to the intestines. Its constant movement means that it rubs against the intestines, which could give rise to serious health problems.


A precaution against this danger has been taken, of course. The stomach’s outermost surface is covered with a membrane called the peritoneum, which secretes a slippery liquid that lubricates the stomach and intestines externally, thus preventing these organs from abrading each other and being damaged by friction. 31


Blood Formation and the Stomach


One unexpected feature of the stomach mucus is that it contributes to the structure of the blood. Stomach mucus does not itself produce blood, but it does, however, contribute important assistance to bone marrow, which produces red blood cells. It permits Vitamin B12, which is of great importance to the body, to reach the bone marrow. When you examine the journey undertaken by Vitamin B12 en route to the bone marrow, and the role of stomach mucus in that journey, a great miracle appears on the microscopic level.


After entering the human body, Vitamin B12 travels along the digestive system and subsequently passes from the small intestine to the bloodstream, and finally reaches the bone marrow.


The assimilation of Vitamin B12 starts in the small intestine. However, no digestive cell in the small intestine is capable of adhering to Vitamin B12. However, in one small region of the small intestine is a group of cells whose sole function is to do this.32 These cells devote their whole lives, in a miraculous manner, to trapping Vitamin B12. These cells are able to distinguish and seize Vitamin B12 from among trillions of other molecules.


Consider the miracle that is taking place: The cells that trap the Vitamin B12 must know its importance for the human body. They have been specially located in a specific part of the small intestine, in order to fulfill that function. Although they devote their lives to catching Vitamin B12, the vitamin is actually of no benefit to them. Having caught the vitamin, they release it back into the bloodstream and send it somewhere else of which they are unaware.


The motive displayed by these cells as they trap this vitamin cannot, of course, have come into being by chance. Clearly this system has been specially created. When you examine the system in a little more detail, still more astonishing miracles appear.


The cells in the small intestine are unable to recognize Vitamin B12 in its raw state. In order for these cells to identify and trap Vitamin B12 molecules, they need to be indicated by another special molecule. This requirement has of course been considered, and a system has been installed allowing Vitamin B12 to be “marked” before reaching the small intestine.


While the Vitamin B12 is still in the stomach, the cells produce a special molecule for it in the form of an ID card that the Vitamin B12 molecule will need on the following stages of its journey. This identity card sticks tightly to the Vitamin B12 as it continues on its way, eventually arriving at the small intestine.


As you have seen, a small group of cells in the small intestine, responsible solely for finding Vitamin B12, will allow it to travel through the bloodstream. Yet these cells will be unable to recognize Vitamin B12 in its natural state, which is when the identity card comes to the vitamin’s assistance. Thanks to this ID card, the nerve cells recognize Vitamin B12 from among trillions of molecules. Subsequently, they permit the Vitamin B12 to enter the bloodstream. In this way the B12 reaches the bone marrow through the blood.


As you see, the stomach cells know the importance of Vitamin B12 for the human body. Moreover, these cells know that cells in the intestine will need a special marker to recognize Vitamin B12, and duly produce that identifying molecule. Then the intestine cells—devoid of eyes, hands or brain—recognize this marker and trap the Vitamin B12.


Don’t forget, the Vitamin B12 assimilated as a result of all these events is of no use to cells in either the stomach or the intestine. This vitamin is used far distant, in the bone marrow, thanks to which, red blood cells can be produced in the body, and human life is able to continue.


Just the details of journey undertaken by this vitamin are sufficient to demonstrate the perfection of the systems within the human body.


No doubt, the consciousness and flawless functioning exhibited during these processes cannot be performed by the cells in question. When all is said and done, cells are only structures formed by assemblages of unconscious molecules. It is utterly meaningless to search in the cell for consciousness, free will or power. The evident truth is that the stomach cells, together with the mechanisms that give rise to blood production, were created by the same creator—Allah—and that they fulfill their functions through His inspiration.
Allah, there is no deity but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining. He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything in the heavens and the Earth belongs to Him. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge save what He wills. His Footstool encompasses the heavens and the Earth and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent. (Surat al-Baqara: 255)
Digestion Continues




Peristaltic motions (rhythmical muscular contractions) assist the mixing of nutrients inside the stomach and direct them toward the pyloric valve.
1) Peristaltic waves move towards the stomach’s mouth (pilor).
2) The most powerful peristalsis and mixing process takes places near the stomach’s mouth.
3) The pyloric end of the stomach acts like a pump. It permits part of the nutrients to enter the duodenum, and keeps back the rest, sending it on in small parcels.

Food in the stomach, now turned into a gelatinous paste, is forwarded from the duodenum through a one-way valve to the small intestine, an organ only 3 centimeters (1.18 inches) in diameter but more than 7 meters (23 feet) long. This 7-meter (23-foot) tube has been folded, squeezed and packaged into the abdomen of every human being. The miracle is not limited to this packaging, however. Vital phenomena take place inside this narrow enclosure.


Although a large part of the food is broken down in the stomach, some of it remains in the stomach, not broken down into its smallest components. These still-undigested foods that leave the stomach also reach the small intestine shortly afterwards. For example, fats are hard to digest, being very large molecules and indissoluble in water. For that reason, fat digestion occurs not in the stomach, but in the small intestine.
At this point, the pancreas and the liver go into action. These two organs send a special fluid into the small intestine, with the help of a channel or duct.


The liver is apparently aware that the stomach cannot break down fats. At the same time, it possesses the chemical formula for a special compound. As soon as fatty foods reach the small intestine, the liver releases the liquid it has prepared and stored, at exactly the right time and place.


The function of this secretion, known as bile, is not limited to breaking down fats. It also helps with the absorption of fats broken down by the small intestine. In addition, it contains special chemical compounds that permit the intestines to absorb vitamins, and is also an antiseptic that kills harmful bacteria remaining in the intestine.


Gall subjects the fats in foodstuffs reaching the small intestine to a preliminary process that will increase the effect of the pancreatic secretion. The various enzymes contained in pancreatic fluid assist not only in the digestion of fats, but also of starch and proteins. There are also large numbers of glands in the mucosa covering the wall of the small intestine that secrete various enzymes that play an important role in the digestion of foods sufficiently broken down. Most of the food in the small intestine gets broken down some 3 to 5 hours after eating. In this way, carbohydrates are reduced to simple sugars, proteins into amino acids, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids, ready for assimilation. The cells in the small intestine absorb these molecules and then release these nutrients into the bloodstream.


When the foodstuff is ready to leave the small intestine, no nutrients remain apart from water and certain vitamins.


CELLS THAT PRODUCE AN ELECTRIC CURRENT


Various mechanisms permit the foods to be transmitted along the digestive tract. One is the involuntary contraction of the muscles in the intestines. Thanks to the rhythmic contraction of these muscles, foodstuffs always progress in one direction only. But why? A team of researchers led by Jan Huizinga of McMaster University in Canada investigated this subject, examining the cells that bring about this one-way movement. They used micro-electrodes located along the digestive tract to establish that the so-called interstitial cells of Cajal set up a constant, regular electrical current. This current permits the muscles, that surround the intestine wall, to contract constantly. However, the presence of an electrical current is not sufficient for this mechanism to function. The current must also be set up with a flawless rhythm. Within the intestines, therefore, the cells of Cajal set up a web that allows them to give off electrical impulses at the same rhythm. (Science et Vie, September, 1998).

Thanks to this flawless mechanism, the things you eat remain in the digestive tract and are turned into a form your body can make use of. Were it not for the rhythmical electrical impulses established by the cells of Cajal, the muscles in your intestines would not contract in harmony, which could lead to the food you eat heading back into your throat instead of traveling onward. However, apart from in certain cases of sickness, we are never faced with this disagreeable phenomenon. As this example shows, the system created by Allah in the human body is flawless in every respect. Thanks to this blessing, we are all able to carry on with our lives.

THE LAST STAGE IN DIGESTION: THE INTESTINES


Deadly Acid Waiting in the Intestines

As you have seen, digestion takes place by means of acids in the stomach. As a result, rather powerful acids remain in the paste reaching the intestines from the stomach, and they might represent a grave danger to the duodenum. Unlike the stomach, the duodenum has no special mucus layer to protect it.
Why, therefore, is the duodenum not damaged by this acid?
To find the answer to this question, we encounter astonishing digestive processes taking place within the body.



Unlike the stomach, the duodenum has no special layer to protect it from acid. Under the special system created by Allah, however, the pancreas has been placed at the service of the duodenum. Bicarbonate molecules produced by the pancreas neutralize the stomach acids and thus protect the duodenum.


To the side, a cross-section of the duodenum wall. All the cells comprising the layers in this section play a role in the digestion of foods, as if they were all conscious entities.

When the acid reaching the duodenum from the stomach reaches a dangerous level, cells on the duodenum’s wall start secreting a hormone called secretin. There are several aspects of this process. First, secretin exists in the intestinal walls in the form of pro-secretin. Under the effect of the digested food, this hormone turns into secretin, a separate substance that eliminates the harmful effects of the acidic secretions by stimulating the pancreas. 33


Like most other hormones, secretin reaches the pancreas by way of the bloodstream and calls on the pancreas for help in secreting enzymes. Realizing that the duodenum is endangered, the pancreas sends bicarbonate molecules to that region, neutralizing the stomach acid and protecting the duodenum.
How did these processes, so vital to human life, come about? Intestinal cells know that the substance they need can be found in the pancreas. They know how to eliminate the effects of stomach acid by disrupting its chemical formula. They know the substance’s formula by stimulating the pancreas, and the pancreas understands the message from the duodenum and starts enzyme secretion. All these are all matters worth considering.


In reference to the intestinal cells, such terms as “know” and “be aware” are used here to emphasize the miraculous aspect of the processes taking place in the body. Otherwise, as every rational person can realize, a cell can’t possibly think, possess free will and take decisions, be aware of another organ’s features, and to determine formulae.


The way that cells, with no brain or consciousness labor in the dark innards of the body is the result of Allah’s superior creation. It is Allah, with His matchless knowledge, Who creates cells and the characteristics they possess. Such features created by Allah in the human body reveal the limitless nature of His might.


The Final Stage in the Digestive Process


The digestion of food is completed in the small intestine. But the final stage is the absorption of digestion’s products so they can be sent to where they’re needed in the body. Absorption in the mouth and stomach is minimal; absorption occurs wholly in the intestines, to which the structure of the small intestine is entirely suited.


The interior surface of the small intestine is very rough and wrinkled, with microscopic pumps on these wrinkles and protrusions. These pumps are actually absorber cells that trap nutrients the body needs and pump them out to the blood capillaries to which they are joined. These tiny pumps know exactly what our bodies need: broken-down sugar to be used in our brain cells, and amino acid to be used in our muscles. These minute pumps display reason in finding and trapping the nutrients we need. Even as you read these words, millions of these pumps are sending the necessary nutrients to the relevant locations that enable you to do so.


Thanks to the wrinkles and tiny pumps in the intestines, the small intestine in an adult actually occupies a rather large surface area—around 300 square meters (358 square yards), or the approximate equivalent of two tennis courts. 34


In this wide area, the absorption of nutrients takes place. Food is first broken down and turned into a paste, which is then spread out over the interior of the intestine in a thin layer, so that the cells can easily absorb all the nutrients in food.


One of the small intestine’s special features is its ability to absorb just enough of certain needed substances. For example, too much iron can harm the body. Iron reaching the intestines above a particular level is excreted without being digested. Were this not to happen, the result would be serious illnesses.
In addition, as mentioned earlier, regions in a very special part of the small intestine are composed of cells prepared to absorb Vitamin B12. People who have this area of their intestines surgically removed must receive additional vitamin supplements, or they will die.


The selectivity of cells in the intestines needs consideration, to better comprehend the greatness of Allah. The intestines are in lightless area of human body, with neither the intelligence nor the information to distinguish between substances. Even so, they can distinguish beneficial substances from harmful ones, and expel unnecessary matter from the body.


It is just about impossible for people to distinguish between chemical substances, mineral salts or powder metals placed before them. Someone without the relevant training cannot tell aluminum from zinc simply by their appearance. It is impossible for that person to determine which substances will be beneficial or harmful, or in what quantities they are currently present in the body. Although a human cannot tell the difference between these substances, the cells in his intestines have no difficulty in doing so.


As you have seen, it is not enough to possess reason and consciousness to be able to identify a particular substance. One also needs detailed information. So how did the intestinal cells come by this knowledge? How do these cells know what the trillions of cells in the body have too much and too little of? And how do they rectify any problems along these lines?


Cells consisting of combinations of atoms cannot possibly be imagined to have any will of their own. Evidently, this information has been placed inside the cells, and clearly, such a magnificent process cannot occur under the influence of chance or any other such factor. This shows the existence of a mighty Entity Who gives the cells what awareness they possess. That power belongs to Allah, the Creator of all, Who gives all things their form.


He is the Originator of the heavens and the Earth. How could He have a son when He has no wife? He created all things and He has knowledge of all things. That is Allah, your Lord. There is no deity but Him, the Creator of everything. So worship Him. He is responsible for everything. (Surat al-An‘am: 101-102)
Bacteria that Work for You


Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestines before reaching the large intestine. However, some special nutrients are absorbed in the large intestine. One of the most interesting of them is Vitamin K, which plays an important role in blood clotting, and whose deficiency can lead to serious consequences, and even death. However, Vitamin K is not naturally found in the form that the human body requires. Only if it is refined in a certain way can this vitamin assume a form that the body can use.


But human metabolism cannot perform such refining. So how is it that we do not die from a lack of Vitamin K? What mechanism refines the vitamin into a form that our bodies can use?


The answer is quite astonishing. Special bacteria in the intestines subject Vitamin K to a series of processes and turn it into a form capable of being used by human beings. The Vitamin K, once synthesized by these bacteria, is absorbed by the large intestine and then used in the blood-clotting process. 35


The presence in the intestine of the bacteria that refine Vitamin K is an important detail. Tiny bacteria are in exactly the right place and possess the genetic code to perform the refinery process, yet people are unaware of the name, and even of the existence, of bacteria so essential to their survival. No coincidences can ever produce a bacterium, install it in the human intestines, or enable this bacterium’s genetic code to perform beneficial processes for the body as a whole.


This information is most astonishing—and most important. No doubt, it leads us to a Creator Who plans and regulates all. That creator is Allah, Who has planned everything down to the finest detail. Like all living things on Earth, human beings stand in need of Him; they were brought into being and exist by His will. Allah Himself has no need of anything. In one verse it is revealed that:


Say: “Can any of your partner-deities guide to the truth?” Say: “Allah guides to the truth. Who has more right to be followed—He Who guides to the truth, or he who cannot guide unless he is guided? What is the matter with you? How do you reach your judgment?” (Surah Yunus: 35)


THE INDEPENDENT FACTORY IN OUR BODIES: THE LIVER


In recent years, computer engineers have begun using the liver as a model, mainly because of the way the liver successfully performs many very complex functions at the same time. The liver serves around 500 functions related to the general running of the human body. 36


The liver ensures that all the food you eat is brought into a form that your body can use. In doing so, it breaks down the complex molecules arriving in the blood from the digestive system into molecules that can be used or stored. It subsequently sends the useful ones on to other cells, by way of the bloodstream. But harmful ones, those it subjects to a number of processes and sends them to the kidneys, where they are filtered and expelled from the body in the form of urine. The way that a 1.5- to 2-kilogram (3.3- to 4.5-pound) organ can take up all nutrients by way of the blood, process and expose them to various chemical reactions, and turn them into useful building blocks of benefit to other cells, is a miracle all by itself.


Since the liver’s fundamental duty is to process the nutrients it receives by way of the blood, its structure must be appropriate to storing blood. Indeed, the liver has a spongy structure. In the human body, a total of 800 to 900 grams (1.7 to 2 pounds) of blood is in a state of absorption by the liver at all times. The special location of such a heavy organ has been determined in such a way as not to damage the other organs and for it to still perform all its functions.


THE LIVER AS A GIANT LABORATORY

Nobody would suggest that a laboratory fully equipped with all the latest technology could come into existence all by itself. Yet evolutionists believe that the liver’s incomparable complexity did form by itself, and propose this in the absence of any proof. That is because Darwinism is a superstitious belief that clouds people’s reason.

Within a single liver cell, some 500 different chemical processes take place. Most of them occur through flawless stages in less than a millisecond (one-thousandth of a second), and cannot be reproduced under laboratory conditions. The liver cell turns the foods you eat into sugar or glucose, which all the cells in your body can use for energy. In the absence of sugar, it  turns proteins and fats into glucose for the cells.

In short, while you eat anything you wish, the liver sorts out all these nutrients according to your body’s requirements and either transforms or stores them. Meanwhile, trillions of liver cells have acted with the same consciousness and knowledge, making no mistakes, from the time of the first human being until the present day.

The Control System in the Liver



The liver is the largest of the internal organs and weighs 1.5 to 2 kilograms (3.3 to 4.5 pounds) in adults. Its location--to the bottom right of the diaphragm and under the stomach-- is most important because of the activities it performs. It needs to be close to all systems, and be placed where its weight will not impede movement. With all its many features, the liver is a miracle of creation.

The liver’s operations may be compared to the workings of a port. In the same way that cargoes from different regions are collected at one spot and then forwarded on to other regions, substances necessary for the body are collected in the liver, and forwarded from there according to the body’s requirements.


For blood loaded with raw materials to reach the liver depends on the blood vessels passing through the digestive tract and the heart. The veins connect organs together for specific purposes. In other words, it is impossible to find in any organ a vessel whose purpose is uncertain or which has no function. The veins that reach the liver are responsible for carrying blood in the right quantities and in the shortest time possible. Oxygenated blood from the heart’s left ventricle reaches the liver through the kidney arteries. Every artery in the body is directed towards the liver, as if they knew that blood had to reach it.


The blood coursing through our bodies that meets the needs of all our cells must be carefully inspected before reaching its destination, and any deficiencies have to be identified and corrected.


The liver cells now enter the equation. Blood from the stomach, intestines and spleen is sent directly to the liver, where it will be refined. It’s as if these organs, realizing the importance of the liver, had taken a joint decision to carry out their share of the job, and fulfill their responsibilities to it.


If blood from the stomach, intestines or spleen went directly to the heart to be spread to the body’s cells, that would mean that substances that were not yet ready to use—or even harmful and poisonous—, would be distributed. That would constitute a life-threatening danger.


Liver cells do not produce blood, which reaches liver cells from the outside. Despite blood being a foreign substance to them, the liver is well acquainted with its structure. Each liver cell knows just what blood should contain. If any substances are missing from the blood, it supplies them. If there are excess quantities of any substances in the blood, it stores them. In short, the liver cells possess an expertise that lets them fulfill their functions to the letter.


Circulation in the liver (above), and a general image of the liver (right).

  1. Left lobe
  2. Lower main arteries
  3. Portal veins
  4. Right lobe
  5. Gall bladder
  6. Liver arteries

In contrast to other organs, the liver receives blood from two different sources. The first is the connection that carries oxygen-rich blood from the arteries of the heart. The second is the arteries carrying nutrients from the stomach and intestines. These two sources reach the liver tissues separately and divide into sinuses inside it. After processing by the liver cells, the blood comes together and is released in a single vein.


MINIATURE LIVERS: THE LOBULES

What kind of structure enables the functioning of the liver? In addition to the sponge-like structure that lets the organ be constantly permeated with blood, it must also have a system to carry away its products and waste products. After proteins and other useful substances have been processed, it is of vital importance that they not be kept in the liver, but sent to where there is urgent need for them, and for harmful substances to be expelled from the body.

All these vital liver functions are carried out by a collection of cells known as lobules. The liver consists of four large lobules, each one of which functions like an individual liver and consist of fine, microscopic fibers. Lobules are in contact with the bile ducts, as well as with veins carrying polluted blood on the one hand, and with arteries bringing oxygen-rich blood on the other. The direction of flow of every vein in the liver, the kind of blood it will carry and where that blood is carried have all been calculated in great detail, planned and put into operation in the most flawless manner.

With all processes completed, the blood leaving the liver returns to the right-hand chambers of the heart and is pumped to the lungs, for dissemination to the body. As you’ve seen, the venous network among the organs and the order in which the blood needs to flow to various organs have been set out according to a specific plan, and the circulatory system has been constructed in light of that.


The Liver’s Special Structure


The tiny blood vessels tirelessly carry the blood, of such great importance for our survival, to the very furthest corners of our bodies. The walls of the capillary vessels, which become increasingly thin as they enter the depths of the tissues, are much thinner than those of the arteries and veins. Thanks to their porous structures, there is a constant exchange between the tissues and the blood of respiratory gasses, water, various minerals, salts, nutrients, wastes, hormones and antibodies.


In contrast to other blood vessels, the walls of the capillaries in the liver lack a protective basal layer. Actually, “lack” may not be the right word here, since the absence is deliberate. While there is a basal layer in the other organs, thanks to its absence in the liver’s blood vessels, blood coming from the capillary veins is immediately soaked up by the liver cells, processed and sent to the body quickly and effectively. Thanks to this structure so well adapted to its functions, the liver is easily able to take blood into its spongy tissues, process it, release many proteins into the blood plasma, as well as taking in and eliminating old erythrocytes traveling through the bloodstream that have completed their life spans.


As another example to underscore the importance of this basal layer structure in blood vessels: It is easier for water to filter down through soft soil than through hard clay. Farmers frequently hoe their fields in order to increase the porosity of the soil for growing crops. Plants in soil that is not hoed enjoy only a limited benefit from rainwater. For minerals and water to reach their roots, the soil needs to have a porous structure. Thinking of the liver in the same terms, the blood vessels in the liver have no basal layer or “clay” and can thus transmit blood to the cells much faster.
Pools in the Liver: The Sinuses



The structure of the liver is highly porous, allowing blood to reach the liver cells more easily and quickly.
Red blood cells are compressed in passing through fine fissures in the sinus walls of the liver. Thanks to this massaging effect, any congestion in the sinus walls is prevented, and the constant exchange of substances between the liver cells and the blood is facilitated.

  1. Sinus
  2. Central veins
  3. Liver artery branch
  4. Liver cells
  5. Sinus

It is thought that more than 2 million sinuses in the form of fine cracks are found in the liver’s complex vascular structure. Their duty is to host the blood arriving from the outside and to play a role in processing it.
The diameter of a sinus is so minute that erythrocytes can pass through one only by squeezing themselves. Such a delicate and fine structure functions throughout a person’s life, without ever being punctured or damaged. The reason why the sinuses have such a delicate structure is most amazing.


  1. Liver artery arm
  2. Bile duct
  3. Bile duct arm
  4. Portal vein a. Lobe (simplified) b. Hepatocyte
    The hundreds of hepatocytes (liver cells) in each of the liver’s lobes work like chemical microprocessors, turning raw nutrients into the required substances and neutralizing harmful substances. They store and distribute substances needed by the body. This flawless design in the liver belongs to Allah, the Almighty.

For the liver to successfully synthesize or expel substances reaching it from the bloodstream, it’s essential that these substances reach the hepatocyte liver cells. Sinuses undertake this responsibility, and work expertly in the liver tissue through which they spread like tunnels. The carefully determined diameters of the sinuses, the wall structures and connections with other vessels are ideally suited to the work they perform. The open structures known as fenestrae (the Latin word for “windows”) in the walls of the liver sinuses allow particles in the blood less than 1/10,000 of a millimeter in size to reach the liver cells, while preventing larger ones from doing so. Were the sinuses any wider, then larger molecules could easily reach the liver cells and damage them.


Different Cell Structures in the Liver


There are two kinds of cell in the liver: epithelial cells and connective tissue cells. They fulfill their responsibilities with great discipline, never confusing or shirking their duties, because any problem that might halt this disciplined working system would mean death.


For example, if the liver cells stopped storing glucose, cells would be unable to function through loss of energy even though foodstuffs entered the body, and the brain cells could not work, leading to death or permanent disability.


Yet such a thing never happens. The cells carry out all the needed production, in the exact manner required. Every liver cell has been created in line with a particular purpose.


The liver is covered in a transparent connective tissue or membrane known as Glisson’s capsule, which serves a very important purpose. If we compare the liver’s structure to a sponge full of liquid, this membrane resembles a bag around that sponge, ensuring that compounds do not leak out from the liquid-filled liver. Thanks to this connective tissue, the liver maintains its structure and keeps its contents, and also keeps separate from other organs.


The connective tissue cells cover and protect the liver, but the liver cells 1 millimeter (0.04 inch) underneath have very different duties. It’s astonishing that cells so close to one another should perform such different functions. During embryonic development in the womb, some cells turn into those that will constitute the liver, and other cells immediately nearby turn into transparent cells that subsequently combine together and form a membrane entirely enfolding the liver, preventing any fluid from leaking out. Two different groups of cells have emerged, contiguous but very different in terms of their tasks and appearance. There is a definite borderline between these two cell groups. Each cell was born knowing its duty and responsibility and where it had to be. While the body is still growing in the womb, it is constructed in a precisely ordered form.


The liver cells’ physical structures have been separately and specially created according to their location and what function they will undertake. For example, the walls of the cells touching the membrane surrounding the liver are all flat, because there is no exchange of substances between the liver cells and the membrane.
In regions where there is a heavy exchange among cells, the situation is different. On the walls of these cells, minute protrusions called microvilli stretch out towards the neighboring cells, permitting greater contact between the cells and the blood fluid, so that substances can be exchanged more easily. Enzymes that speed up and halt chemical reactions have also been located in regions containing these protrusions, and all the means necessary for substance exchange are in place.


That the liver’s cells possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for their functions and location shows that every detail in this organ has been set out in line with a specific plan:


Everyone in the heavens and Earth belongs to Him. All are submissive to Him. (Surat ar-Rum: 26)


The Liver’s Canal System


  1. Bile duct
  2. Liver cells
  3. Liver vein
  4. Central veins
  5. Liver artery
  6. Bile duct

The liver possesses a special transportation system containing millions of channels. The two main veins carrying blood to the liver, once inside it, divide into millions of tiny capillaries. Moreover, inside the liver there are also channels that carry gall bladder secretions and are laid out parallel to the blood vessels. What is the significance of these millions of micro-channels in a piece of tissue weighing between 1.5 and 2 kilograms (3 to 4.5 pounds)?


This channel system is a specially built marvel of creation whose importance can be better understood when you recall the functions of the liver cells, the amount of blood reaching the organ and the liver’s general function.
The liver refines molecules in the blood, turns them into other substances and when necessary, stores them. All these processes are carried out by millions of tiny chemical laboratories—the liver cells—and a special connection needs to be provided for each cell, and molecules about to be refined need to be carried right up to it by the blood. This channel system possesses the ideal creation for meeting this need. The millions of micro-channels inside the liver have been constructed in such a way as to never conflict with one another or to disrupt each other’s functions. The transportation of the raw materials to be processed and of substances in the liver produces takes place along these channels.


To better comprehend the flawless nature of this creation consider the following example:


Imagine you have paid a short visit to one of the most developed and best planned cities in the world, and have investigated that city. Its infrastructure is flawless. With regard to transportation in particular, every possible measure has been taken and a great many facilities have been laid on for its inhabitants. A large metro system is built under the city’s surface, connecting all the regions of the city to one another. The metro network is hundreds of kilometers long, with stations all along that length.



(Top left:)Millions of micro-canals that never cross or interfere with each others’ functions have been installed in the liver Raw materials that will be processed in the liver or substances produced in it are carried along these canals. The structure of the liver can therefore be compared to that of a major highway (top right).

Perfect urban planning has also been carried out on the surface. Thanks to the city’s large number of rationally planned main roads and highways, traffic never becomes congested, no matter how busy the city, and there is never any transportation delay. At the same time, the roads’ superstructure has also been flawlessly planned. Roundabouts and signal lights direct the flow of traffic, and signposts along the roads make things easier for out-of-town drivers.


This advanced city is an important commercial and industrial center. Its roads are used at all hours for the transport of commercial and industrial goods.


How would you react if someone told you that the city had never been planned at all, that it was not deliberately built, and that its roads, and industrial and commercial centers all came into being through chance and by themselves?


Rather than wondering whether that person’s words were true, you would wonder whether the individual was sane.


When the urban planning cited in this analogy is compared to the channel system inside the liver, the former is much simpler than the latter. Every pulmonary channel has been opened for a specific purpose, to fulfill a specific function. The molecules produced or processed in the liver move through these channels in breathtakingly busy traffic, yet without any disruption taking place. The channels are surrounded by cells that engage in production, storing and transformation, carrying out processes far more complex than those in any factory or industrial center, and continue production around the clock. A highly efficient transportation network has been provided for an extraordinarily productive industrial and commercial zone. Quite clearly, any such well-planned system must have been created.


Great planning can be seen in every feature of the human body, not solely in the liver. Molecules invisible to the naked eye travel through painstakingly constructed channels to reach their required destinations. The continuity of this transportation is of the greatest importance to human life.


Scientists and doctors have spent years researching and investigating the organ in which these molecules will be stored, the level at which they will be present in the blood, and whether or not they will be expelled from the body. Indeed, the branch of science known as molecular biology makes a special study of the behavior and function of molecules it has identified in the body. The information obtained so far, however, can account for only a small part of the body’s functioning. Trained minds are investigating these bodily systems using the very latest technology, but still failing to fully understand them. It’s impossible for these systems to have come into being by themselves. Claims that base their coming into being by chance are quite laughable.


Nobody would claim that a road interchange made of asphalt came into being by itself. That being so, it is utterly illogical to believe that a flawless planning system composed of such delicate substances as flesh and blood, thousands of kilometers long, was created by chance.


Allah created all this flawless system. Everything happens as He so wills it.


Special Capabilities of the Liver Cells


The liver is seemingly aware of all the activities taking place in other, different places in the circulation, digestive and respiratory systems. For example, it knows beforehand that the fats entering the digestive system will be unable to be dissolved, and it produces the chemical necessary for those fats to be broken down and digested in its laboratory.


As you already know, that substance is bile, or gall. The liver stores this substance it produces and subsequently, on receipt of a command, sends it to help digest fatty foods at exactly the right moment.
The organ that performs all these functions consists solely of flesh and blood. However, the liver is aware of everything going on in the digestive system and produces bile as a precautionary measure, meaning that it possesses considerable foresight.


The capacities of the liver cells go even further than this. As a result of this organ’s constant activity, a number of waste products emerge. It’s essential that these be expelled if the liver is to continue functioning. The Kupffer’s cells on the sinus surfaces fulfill this role by swallowing and digesting harmful substances in the blood by the method known as phagocytosis. Danger is eliminated by these cells carrying out an accurate distinction between useful and harmful substances. 37


What if these cells did not identify and eliminate harmful substances in the blood?


Diseases would constantly break out in the body, and the immune system would be in a constant state of mobilization, leading us to feel always ill and fatigued. Yet thanks to this special system in the liver, the body’s enormous army does not proceed to action stations, while the Kupffer’s cells—which may be compared to a border police force—eliminate harmful substances.


This precaution for the benefit of human health is part of Allah’s affection for the living things He has created. All those who think on this information using their conscience and reason will reach only one conclusion: Allah is the Almighty, the Worthy of All Praise.


Multi-Functional Workers in the Liver


The hepatocytes, or the basic liver cells, perform a number of functions, including the secretion of bile, cleansing the toxins from the blood, distinguishing between proteins and carbohydrates and fats, and producing the particles that are stored in the blood and used for coagulation. Each of these functions is very important for us to lead healthy lives. It is thought-provoking, too, that the same liver cells should carry out so many different processes. Each of these chemical reactions combining substances such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen requires a separate expertise. Their being performed by the same cells, requires a system, order and planning, and the fact that the details are carried out by cells that can be observed only under an electron microscope is one worthy of deep amazement.


Imagine that we try to establish a human community that will perform all the processes our livers carry out for us. We will need to find:


An expert on the subject of chemical reactions,
A staff to work in production,
A space to store the necessary materials,
A way to dispose of the waste products arising during production, in such a way as not to harm those working in the factory or to pollute the environment,
To offer additional services to nearby factories and produce in advance such materials as they may need,
To settle disagreements with nearby factories. . .

And a great deal more.


At the same time, each of these workers—just like the liver cells—must have experience in all these areas. They must work non-stop, never feel tired, and be able to assume single-handed responsibility for everything they do.


As you might expect, it will be quite impossible to find individuals with all these characteristics to undertake such a responsibility. Yet millions of cells, visible only under the microscope, are performing all the tasks just listed and many more, in a perfectly flawless manner, just under your diaphragm. Moreover, they are performing these same tasks and in just the same flawless way in the livers of everyone alive today, and in the livers of everyone who has ever lived.


This magnificent intelligence exhibited by trillions of cells, themselves made up of molecules, is clearly not their own.


Some Functions of the Liver, Which Acts Like a Headquarters


The liver consumes 12 to 20% of the body’s total energy in performing its various functions, known to number around 500. Some of the areas in which the liver acts just like a central headquarters are the following:
It Regulates the Nutrients Necessary for the Cells

Activities in a refinery (at side) or factory (above) are carried out with no confusion, because the entire system has been specially created. The liver (above left) has a complex structure similar to a factory’s. Thanks to the flawless creation of Allah, it constantly performs tasks essential to our health.

The liver makes the necessary adjustments for each of the 100 trillion or so cells in our bodies to be able to receive the nutrients they require. In so doing, it must know just what the cells need. Yet where does this organ, itself made up of similar cells, collect the requisite information? How does it interpret it, and how does it arrive at the correct decisions?


It Takes up the Raw Materials Necessary to Produce Nutrients


The raw materials the liver uses to carry out production are carried in the blood. In the same way that a factory receives raw materials from various loading docks and then turns them into very different items, so the liver constantly synthesizes the raw materials that reach it, stores or uses them, or returns them to the body in the bloodstream, ready to be disposed of.


It Stores Materials that the Body Needs


The liver, comparable to a giant laboratory in which chemical reactions take place, also ensures the storage of various substances essential for survival, such as iron, copper, Vitamin A and Vitamin D—and also produces a number of them by itself. In addition, the liver produces proteins such as heparin, fibrinogen and prothrombin, responsible for blood coagulation.


It Produces the Proteins Essential for Life


One of the liver’s main functions is to synthesize needed proteins. The liver knows what it has to do without having received any training at all, uses the correct method to distinguish nitrogen molecules belonging to amino acids given off as a result of digestion, and produces new proteins by having these substances react with carbohydrates and fats. It also produces such materials as carbohydrate by using fats and proteins. From carbohydrate and protein, the liver is capable of producing fat which it stores to be easily turned into energy later.


It Supports the Immune System


As already pointed out, the liver is an important component of your body’s immune system. It makes no mistakes in finding harmful substances, neutralizing and disposing of them.


Special phagocytes in the liver clean foreign bodies and bacteria from the blood. The liver also neutralizes the toxic effects of drugs, thus preventing any poisonous side effects from the medications you take when you are ill. Working literally like a security system, the liver identifies all the harmful substances that reach it by way of the bloodstream. Were it not for liver cells recognizing and taking appropriate measures to deal with harmful substances that reach the liver through the bloodstream from the stomach or the intestines, then simple bacteria—or the drugs we take for health purposes—would leave us suffering one illness after another.
All these processes, essential to our survival, are carried out non-stop by an organ weighing only 1.5 to 2 kilograms (3 to 4.5 pounds.) All these processes are taking place even as you read these words. Even a momentary pause in this miraculous system would lead you to an incurable illness or even death.


The liver, which performs all these functions, is itself an organ composed of basic building blocks such as protein, fat and water. That it possesses much greater expertise than a human being—who will learn to perform a few chemical reactions only after years of training—and the way that every chemical reaction ends successfully, is quite astonishing. Every liver cell knows which substances will be used in our bodies, as well as the molecular and chemical structures of these substances. They thus turn the nutrients they identify into useful substances, but in so doing, they know that they also need vitamins and enzymes to synthesize protein. They know that iron constitutes the basis of producing erythrocytes, the fundamental building blocks of blood, and that the level of sugar in the blood needs to be kept at an even level!


But liver cells are unable to perform any of these processes of their own accord. They cannot learn one single piece of information about the substances in our bodies. It is our Lord Allah Who inspires the liver cells the knowledge of which substances are to be processed, which are useful or harmful, and which need to be stored for later use.


A Maintenance-Free System


As already described, the renal artery and the hepatic veins carry blood to the liver and bifurcate into small branches inside the organ. Some 1.5 liters (0.4 gallons) of blood per minute passes through the liver by means of them. This means that 90 liters (23.8 gallons) of blood passes through the liver every hour; and the liver processes 2,160 liters (0.6 gallon) of blood a day. Moreover, 1.5 tons (1.6 short tons) of protein and 12.5 tons (13.7 short tons) of carbohydrates enter the liver in an average human lifespan of 70 years.


This system may be thought of as a giant refinery working non-stop, 24 hours a day, and functioning with a computer-controlled command system. Assuming that one working day began as soon as the previous one came to an end, one might well expect the refinery machinery to require maintenance. Even with a very modern, advanced refinery, we would have to spend at least half a day every week checking its components.
Yet what we are discussing here is an organ in our bodies that works far more intensely than any refinery. The liver takes in tons of substances, processes them without making any concessions, and turns them into forms that the body can use. In addition, despite working non-stop, never tiring or needing a rest, it never requires any maintenance that might slow the system down.


This is the superior and incomparable creation of Allah.


He is the Living—there is no deity but Him—so call on Him, making your religion sincerely His. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds. (Surah Ghafir: 65)


The Liver’s Ability to Regenerate Itself


The liver is the only organ in the body capable of regenerating itself. Even if up to 70% of the liver is removed, within a week or two it again reaches a size capable of performing all its functions.


The mechanisms responsible for the regeneration of the liver are still being researched. This feature of the liver was first revealed by studies by two surgeons in the Mayo Clinic in 1931. It was realized that the liver regenerated itself in a great many species, and that the cells initiate this process automatically in the wake of any damage. Yet cells in a healthy liver are never observed to multiply of their own accord. That being so, why do they divide and multiply when this organ requires it, and do so until the liver has once again attained its former dimensions? How do the cells know for how long they need to multiply, or when to stop? Where do the commands come from? In the absence of a command to stop, do they decide for themselves not to increase to the extent of putting pressure on other organs?


Whenever liver cells are subjected to any harm or damage, they suddenly begin multiplying by initiating a most unexpected activity. The astonishing thing about this phenomenon is that the cells divide at unbelievable speed, while still performing their normal functions to the letter. It is even more surprising how they take a joint decision on when the process should stop, once the necessary steps have been taken.


It is thought that damage to the liver sets into motion a number of factors that create a multiplication in the cells. These growth factors are perceived by receptors on the liver cells and give rise to complex activities inside them. New programming thus begins at the genetic level, and the requisite activity for multiplication of liver cells is initiated.


The same subject has been investigated by geneticists, who examined the method used by self-regenerating cells in the liver and their levels of activity. These studies investigate what are known as proliferating hepatocytes and the path they follow from inside the liver. A single hepatocyte can regenerate a rather large part of the liver. During the division and multiplication process, it was observed that new cells in the liver do not move, although old hepatocytes do.


During the regeneration process, cells at the center of the liver and other cells emerge from the portal region and move towards the kidney vein. This mass movement may be compared to a walk. Since the cells move in only one direction, the further a cell is from the center, the older it is. In this way, cells’ age can be calculated by means of their distance from the center.


The proliferating-tissue theory proposed with the investigation of the movements of aging liver cells is one that every newborn cell knows very well and immediately puts into practice. Whenever one of the cells divides, one of the newly formed cells has to move. Following the division of the cell into two, in the process known as mitosis, one of the new- formed cells takes the place of the original cell, and that cell proliferates forward to the site of connection.


When a cell divides, the new cell remains in place of the old one, and the original “mother” cell moves forward a little. However, in order for this cell to assume its new place, all the other nearby cells have to slide outwards. But as we’ve seen, these cells are neither pushed nor pulled, and perform no mechanical activity. The phenomenon that takes place is described as proliferating and takes place very quickly.


It is Allah Who gives the requisite commands and Who regulates and creates this miraculous process from beginning to end. In the verses of the Qur’an, it is revealed that Allah regulates the existence and working of every system on Earth, and that people must study and consider this knowledge:


It is Allah Who created the seven heavens and of the Earth same number, the Command descending down through all of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge. (Surat at-Talaq: 12)

THE CONSCIOUSNESS IN CELLS
CONFIRMS
THE TRUTH OF CREATION!


How your organs establish communications with one another is essential for your survival. In order for an organ’s cells to discharge their functions, they must constantly communicate—either by direct contact, or else by means of nervous, electrical or chemical connections. We must not forget, however, that every organelle is a piece of tissue, and that proteins, chemicals or minerals bring about this communication. Those same substances also forward information to one another, and understand and act upon it—resulting in activity that displays enormous consciousness and reason.

For example, when one part of the human kidney is removed, it re-assumes its previous shape by means of the remaining part regenerating itself. Again, the really important point is that the cells know when their multiplication needs to stop and start. The cells that are dividing all decide to stop at exactly the same time, neither any earlier nor later.


Who, therefore, issues the first command to multiply? Who warns them to act quickly since the situation is urgent, who realizes when the kidney has attained its previous shape, and then commands them to stop? Whose word do the other cells obey to start multiplying, and whose word to stop? An organ called the liver? It is of course impossible for a piece of tissue to exhibit superior consciousness and to make decisions in the light of reason. That superior consciousness and reason belong to Allah, our Lord. These phenomena show us the superior might of Allah that prevails throughout the universe.

THE BODY’S SECRET SUPPORTER: THE PANCREAS


Imagine you have a delicious dinner. You may never have wondered how you will digest those various nutrients. You are likely unaware that each of these nutrients need to be processed by different enzymes. Of course, it’s perfectly natural for anyone who has not received specialized training to be unaware of this. Yet one organ in your body does possess all this information. It knows which foodstuffs will be digested by which enzyme, and sends the right chemical secretion to these foodstuffs, at the proper time, with no confusion or stoppages ever occurring. That organ is the pancreas.



The pancreas maintains the body’s balances by working in an exceedingly planned manner. It is aware of even the smallest changes in the levels of substances in the blood and acts accordingly. It is Allah Who endows the pancreas with these features.

One of the most important organs in the body, the pancreas decides how many sugar molecules need to be present in the blood flowing through the veins. If there is a reduction in the number of sugar molecules in the bloodstream, the pancreas immediately takes steps to raise that number, and those measures save the life of the individual. If the sugar-molecule concentration rises, then it takes steps to lower their amount in the bloodstream.


With the enzymes it sends to the digestive system, the pancreas plays a major role in human health. The enzyme that prevents the intestines being digested by stomach acid is also produced by
the pancreas. If we examine these functions one by one, then we can see how this organ, which may never have drawn your attention, acts in a most planned, conscious manner and possesses a flawless system that keeps you alive.


The regulation of pancreatic fluid secretion:Hormonal checks performed by secretin and cholesystokinin (stages 1-3) and the main regulatory factors, controlled by the vagus nerves. This system, built for just one of the fluids in the body, is evidence of the matchless nature of Allah’s creative artistry.


  1. The chymus entering the duodenum causes the mucus cells to secrete secretin and cholesystokinin.
  2. Cholesystokinin and secretin enter the blood.
  3. As it nears the pancreas, cholesystokinin causes enzymes to release rich pancreatic fluid.
  4. The stimulation of the vagus nerve by the fibers causes pancreatic fluid to be released.

The pancreas’ intervention in the digestive system begins with a special signal. As digestive processes carry on inside the stomach, specific quantities of a special enzyme known as cholesystokinin enters the bloodstream and stimulates the pancreas to secrete breaking-down enzymes into the duodenum. 38


The Hidden Chemist


The pancreas not only understands that the digestive process has begun. It can also understand the kind of foods you have eaten, and then produces different digestive enzymes accordingly. For instance, when you eat a lot of carbohydrates, such as pasta or bread, when these foods reach the duodenum, the pancreas secretes the enzyme amylase, which possesses the feature of breaking down carbohydrates.



The top blackboard shows the glucose molecule, and the lower one the amilase molecule which emerges as a result of glucose molecules adhering together. It is impossible for human beings to decipher these formulae without special training. However, the pancreatic cells know the chemical structures of such molecules very well, and use them as necessary. It is Almighty Allah Who creates the pancreas and its attributes.

If you eat meat, fish or chicken, when these high-protein products reach the duodenum, the pancreas produces enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease, which then break down the protein molecules. If your meal has a high fat content, then lipase, another enzyme that digests fats, enters the duodenum together with these other enzymes.


This organ realizes the content of the food you eat, then separately produces the chemical fluids necessary to digest these foods, and secretes them only at the right time. The pancreas never secretes enzymes that break down protein for carbohydrates, or fluids that break down carbohydrates for fat molecules. It never forgets the chemical formulae of the complex enzymes it produces, or accidentally leaves out any components. In the healthy individuals bodies, the pancreas serves accurately for a whole lifetime.


For a closer look at the scale of the miracle involved, let’s examine this phenomenon at the micro level. As digestion proceeds, the stomach cells do not remain idle. Some of these cells realize that the food being digested will later reach the duodenum. Their sole concern is that this food should be digested as well as possible. By means of the bloodstream, the stomach cells signal to the pancreas cells to assist them by secreting a hormone.


The signal they deposit travels through the bloodstream and when it reaches the pancreas, the cells there immediately recognize it. Although it travels through just about the whole body, the signal is not opened and in particular, not read, by the other organs. All other cells know that this signal has been addressed to the pancreas, not to them. That is because the molecular structure of the signal has been so created to affect only the receptor molecules on the membranes of pancreatic cells. In other words, the stomach cells have written the correct “address” on the hormone it produced in a conscious, knowledgeable way. In order for that address to be written properly, the stomach cell needs to know all the features of a pancreatic cell.


The miracle is not solely restricted to the correct writing of the address. The letter sent by the stomach cell also contains a message. Two tiny cells in the depths of the human body, located far away from one another, correspond and communicate to serve a specific purpose. Though they have never seen one another, they know the language the other will understand and act together to plan for the digestion of the food you eat. No doubt this is a true miracle!


  1. Islands of Langerhans
  2. Pancreatic lobe cells
  3. Acinus
  4. Insulin and glucagen hormones
  5. Capillary vessel
  6. Duct of Virsung

The part of the pancreas that secretes digestive enzymes is rather like the saliva glands. This region is composed of parts known as the asinus. Among these pancreatic lobes (asinus) are the islands of Langerhans, a structure is rich in blood vessels. It secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon that regulate blood-sugar levels.

The pancreas reads the message reaching it, in the form of the hormone cholesystokinin, and loses no time in secreting the necessary enzymes. If the food reaching the duodenum is a protein, then it produces an enzyme that breaks down protein and sends this to the duodenum. If the food is heavy in carbohydrates, then it produces an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrate.


  1. Pancreas
  2. Detail of islands of Langerhans

Imagine a blackboard on which are written the formulas for a protein molecule, a fat molecule and a carbohydrate molecule, together with plans of these molecules’ atomic chains. Then imagine that someone asks you to produce the chemical formulas for the best enzymes to break down each one of these three different molecular structures, and to write them down on the blackboard.


Unless you have received specialized chemical training, you could never guess the most ideal formulas that would break down these molecules. You could write down those formulas only in the light of previous training or instruction.


That being so, then how do pancreatic cells know the chemical formulas of the enzymes they produce? Each and every pancreatic cell knows these formulas from the moment it comes into being. Moreover, it constantly uses that information in the most accurate manner to serve the body as a whole. In terms of chemistry, pancreatic cells are far more knowledgeable than human beings! Humans require special training to produce these formulas, whereas a tiny cell knows them all by heart right from the start.


No coincidence can provide cells with such special information and a superior sense of responsibility. No coincidence can ever build a system by which cells can communicate with, and seek assistance from one another. No coincidence can teach a single cell even one chemical formula. No coincidence can endow the cell with the capacity to use whatever information it possesses at exactly the right time.


It is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Who created all these systems from nothing and placed them at the service of human beings by ensuring they work at every moment.


Another of the pancreas’ important functions is regulating the body’s blood sugar levels. The secretions that perform this function, called insulin and glucagon, are emitted by small, closed glands in the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans. 39


As you sip tea or eat a piece of cake, your need to regulate the level of sugar in your bloodstream never occurs to you. You may never even realize how vitally important this constant regulation is. Your pancreas, however, responsible for your ongoing health in this area, possesses all the information to adjust your blood sugar levels in a particularly sensitive manner. When necessary, it secretes sufficient amounts of hormone to protect the level of sugar in your body.


It is essential for life that the amount of sugar in the blood should be within specific limits. Yet we need not calculate that sensitive balance as we eat sugary foods in our daily lives—because that calculation is performed for us.


When the level of sugar in the blood rises, the pancreas immediately becomes aware of it and secretes a special substance known as insulin, which instructs the liver and other body cells to keep hold of the excess sugar. If the level of sugar in the blood falls, then the pancreas learns of this, too and secretes the hormone glucagon. The liver then releases into the blood the sugar stocks it has previously stored by means of special processes. 40 Thanks to this, the blood level of sugar never reaches dangerous levels, except during cases of diabetes.


In your day-to-day life, you will be quite unaware of the pancreas, its insulin and your liver. You will not feel that your blood sugar level has risen. Even if blood samples with two different amounts of sugar in them are placed before you, you will be unable to tell the difference. Yet some of your cells, which you have never seen, measure the levels of sugar in your blood far more sensitively than any laboratory could, and immediately decide on the steps that need to be taken.

How did your cells come by this incomparable intellect and ability?

Of course, your cells did not give themselves the intellect and ability with which to make measurements, make decisions and put them into practice. It is Almighty Allah Who creates the cells in your body with such a flawless system, gives them the necessary commands, and makes them aware of how they must behave.
In our description so far, we have used such verbs as knows, makes, and produces. Bearing in mind that the pancreas is also composed of cells, you can immediately see that these actions require reason, and cannot be attributes of the pancreas itself. That being so, who gave the cells of the pancreas their ability to produce for an entire lifetime and endowed them with their sense of responsibility? Who taught the pancreatic cells the chemical formulas of enzymes that break down so many different complex molecules? Who provided the duct system to allow the fluids they produce to empty into the correct locations? Who established the warning and communications systems to allow the right enzymes to be released at the right time?


These questions and hundreds of similar ones lead us to one evident truth. It is Allah Who does all this. Allah reveals Himself to us with such magnificent features as these, which He has installed in such a tiny volume. This is the most important fact in anyone’s life.

ARE YOU AWARE OF THE GIANT FACTORY WORKING
IN YOUR BODY WHEN YOU EAT SUGARY FOODS?

If your food contains more sugar than your body requires, it acts to prevent the level of sugar in your bloodstream from rising:

First, cells in the pancreas locate the sugar molecules in the blood and distinguish between them from among all the hundreds of other kinds of molecules present, and decide whether these molecules are too many or too few. How minute cells, too small to be seen with the naked eye, with no sense organs or brains, can be aware of the quantity of sugar molecules inside a liquid is an imponderable question.

If the pancreatic cells determine that there is more sugar in the blood than needed, they decide that this excess sugar be stored, by other cells at a considerable distance away from them.

These distant cells will not store sugar unless commanded to do so. But, the pancreatic cells make a hormone known as insulin to carry the instruction start storing sugar. The formula for this hormone has been encoded in the DNA of the pancreatic cells ever since they were first formed.

Special enzymes (worker proteins) in the pancreatic cells read this formula and produce insulin accordingly. Hundreds of enzymes, each with a different function, are involved in its production.

The hormone insulin thus produced is carried to the target cells via the bloodstream— the most reliable and rapid transportation network.
Other cells read the “Store sugar” instruction given by the insulin and obey it to the letter opening to allow the sugar molecules to enter them.
The storage cells’ doors are not opened at random, however. They recognize, seize and enclose only sugar molecules from among the hundreds of other different molecules passing in the blood.

The cells never disobey any instruction that reaches them; neither do they misunderstand such instructions, trap the wrong substances or try to store more sugar than necessary. They work with great discipline and self-sacrifice.

Thus when you drink a cup of tea with too much sugar in it, this extraordinary system goes into operation to store the excess sugar in your tissues. If that system did not work, then your blood sugar level would rise rapidly, and you would go into a so-called diabetic coma and die.

So perfect is this system that when necessary, it can also operate in the opposite manner. If your blood sugar level falls below normal, then pancreatic cells produce an entirely different hormone, known as glucagons, which instructs to the cells that have previously stored sugar to release it into the bloodstream. The cells obey and release the sugar they have stored.

How can nervous system,devoid of a brain, and sense organs carry out such processes and activities so successfully? How can these unconscious entities, combinations of protein and fat molecules, achieve things that human chemists cannot? What is the origin of this obvious consciousness displayed by unconscious molecules?

These phenomena reveal the existence and might of Allah, Who has dominion over the universe and all living things. This dominion is revealed thus in the Qur’an:

All greatness belongs to Him in the heavens and Earth. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.  (Surat al-Jathiyya: 37)

Say: “Who is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth?” Say: “Allah.” Say: “So why have you taken protectors apart from Him who possess no power to help or harm themselves?” Say: “Are the blind and seeing equal? Or are darkness and light the same? Or have they assigned partners to Allah who create as He creates, so that all creating seems the same to them?” Say: “Allah is the Creator of everything. He is the One, the All-Conquering.” (Surat ar-Ra‘d: 16)


The cell’s absorption of glucose depends on the level of insulin in the blood. When insulin adheres to the receptor in the cell membrane (1), special proteins inside the cell (2) go into action. This is a signal for the glucose bearers. In addition, there are glucose sacs covered in a membrane in the inner part of the cell (3). One part of these stands close to the cell membrane (4), When stimulated, these sacs move towards the main cell membrane and join with it (5). During this joining together, the glucose-bearers emerge, ready to collect glucose (6). As the number of proteins carrying glucose inside the cell membrane increases, the glucose level in the blood falls, and less insulin is produced. Later, part of the cell membrane begins to curve inwards together with the protein-bearers (7). and sacs form (8). These move into the inner part of the cell and combine with the endosome (9). When sacs again form here, they wait for a subsequent stimulus (10), and the process continues on a constant basis. (Dr. Philip Whitfield, Human Body Explained, A Marshall Edition, p. 43)

Why Is the Pancreas Not Harmed by Its Own Secretions?


The pancreas secretes so many dissolving enzymes, yet does not digest itself. The pancreas, with a basically protein structure, remains unaffected by any of the dissolving enzymes it secretes. This protective system comes about in a most astonishing, miraculous way.


The pancreas first produces its enzymes in a non-active form, in which they are unable to break down proteins—and therefore, the pancreas itself.



The pancreas is about 15 centimeters (6 inches) long. The pancreas and the organs around it are shown to the side. Everyone who considers the harmony between the pancreas and the organs in the body, and the perfection in the links between them, will realize that Allah possesses a most superior power.

When released into the duodenum, however, the enzymes combine with a very special substance produced only in this region of the body, and immediately begin to change. Enzymes combine with the substance known as enterokinase, produced in the small intestine, and suddenly assume active form, acquiring the ability to break down proteins.41 The way that one substance secreted in the pancreas joins together in complete harmony with another secreted in the intestines is a considerable wonder.

These two molecules have never met before, having been secreted in different regions. Yet these two independent molecules complement each other flawlessly, and serve a common purpose. This miraculous phenomenon cannot, of course, be explained in terms of chance.

What is more, the miraculous systems that prevent the pancreas from digesting itself are by no means limited to this. The pancreas secretes another protein-digesting enzyme called trypsin and at the same time, secretes another special substance known as a trypsin-inhibitor to prevent the trypsin from dissolving the pancreas. These two enzymes, have no effect when secreted together, separate from one another when they reach the duodenum. This in a way liberates the trypsin, which begins to break down the protein in the foods arriving at the intestines. 42 Were these two substances to separate earlier, it would dissolve the pancreas itself. If they never separated from one another, then the trypsin would be unable to break down proteins. However, as this example shows, everything happens at the right time and in the right place. The pancreas knows it must secrete the necessary substances at just the right time, and the enzymes go into action only after dividing from each other. Clearly the cells composing the pancreas, and the molecules that make up its enzymes, could never form such a flawless system, nor establish such perfect order within the human body of their own accord.


Anyone reasonable can see that such a system, which works with no gaps and no confusion in the order of tasks performed, and with the same flawlessness in all human beings, is the product of a superior Intellect and a flawless Creation. It is impossible to account for this system in evolutionary terms. This system is one of the manifest proofs of Allah’s creation. Allah reveals these signs in this and other such examples to those able to use their minds and who are able to see.

It is He Who appointed the Sun to give radiance, and the Moon to give light, assigning it phases so you would know the number of years and the reckoning of time. Allah did not create these things except with truth. We make the Signs clear for people who know. In the alternation of night and day and what Allah has created in the heavens and the Earth there are Signs for people who guard against evil. (Surah Yunus: 5-6)

REFERENCES
28- John Farndon ve Angela Koo, Human Body, Factfinder, Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd., ?ngiltere, 1999, s.191
29- Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, Saunders College Publishing, ABD, 1993, s.960
30- Curtis&Barnes, Invitation to Biology, s. 391
31- Eldra Pearl Solomon, Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology, s.211-212
32- Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, s.977
33- Curtis&Barnes, Invitation to Biology, s.393
34- Curtis&Barnes, Invitation to Biology, s.392
35- Marshall Cavendish, Illustrated Human Body, s.116
36- Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, , s.962
37- Arthur Guyton-John Hall, Text Book of Medical Physiology Guyton & Hall, W.B. Saunders Company, 1996, s.885
38- Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, s.967
39- Prof. Dr. Ahmet Noyan, Ya?amda ve Hekimlikte Fizyoloji, s.881-882
40- Arthur Guyton-John Hall, Text Book of Medical Physiology Guyton & Hall, s.978
41- Prof. Dr. Ahmet Noyan, Ya?amda ve Hekimlikte Fizyoloji, s.879
42- Biological Science A Molecular Approach, Sixth Edition, D.C. Heath and Company, Toronto, s.412